Lance K.Blevins, Anthony P.Bach, Robert B.Crawford, Jiajun Zhou, Joseph E.Henriqueza, Michael D.Rizzo, Sera Sermet, D.M. Isha Olive Khan, Helen Turner, Andrea L. Small-Howard, Norbert E.Kaminski
October 10, 2022
Cannabis is well established as possessing immune modulating activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of selected cannabis-derived terpenes and cannabinoids. Based on their activity in cannabis-chemovar studies, α-pinene, trans-nerolidol, D-limonene, linalool and phytol were the selected terpenes evaluated. The cannabinoid compounds evaluated included cannabidivarin, cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Human PBMC were pretreated with each compound, individually, at concentrations extending from 0.001 to 10 μM and then stimulated with CpG (plasmacytoid dendritic cell), LPS (monocytes), or anti-CD3/CD28 (T cells). Proliferation, activation marker expression, cytokine production and phagocytosis, were quantified. Of the 21 responses assayed for each compound, cannabinoids showed the greatest immune modulating activity compared to their vehicle control. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol possessed the greatest activity affecting 11 immune parameters followed by cannabidivarin, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabinol and cannabidiol. α-Pinene showed the greatest immune modulating activity from the selected group of terpenes, followed by linalool, phytol, trans-nerolidol. Limonene had no effect on any of the parameters tested. Overall, these studies suggest that selected cannabis-derived terpenes displayed minimal immunological activity, while cannabinoids exhibited a broader range of activity. Compounds possessing anti-inflammatory effects may be useful in decreasing inflammation associated with a range of disorders, including neurodegenerative disorders.
Blevins, L. K., Bach, A. P., Crawford, R. B., Zhou, J., Henriquez, J. E., Rizzo, M. D., … & Kaminski, N. E. (2022). Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of selected cannabinoids and terpenes from Cannabis Sativa L employing human primary leukocytes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 113458.