Damage caused by physical exertion (anti-inflammatory) (Gamelin et al., 2020;Kennedy, 2017;Stone et al., 2023;Villanueva et al., 2022), and reduce pain caused by high physical demands (pain and soreness reliever) (see figure 1) (Gamelin et al., 2020;Henson et al., 2022;Kennedy, 2017). substances promote sleep controlled by the endocannabinoid system, which we can activate by consuming CBD (McCartney et al., 2020;Rojas-Valverde, 2021).Sleep management requires a precise balance of neurotransmitters, and CBD’s actions on the endocannabinoid system contribute to this balance. CBD interacts with adenosine receptors, which is significant since adenosine is a neurotransmitter that promotes sleep and relaxation.CBD promotes tranquillity and preparedness for sleep by boosting adenosine signalling.Furthermore, CBD’s effect on GABAergic neurotransmission adds to its sleep-enhancing properties (Kaul et al., 2021;Kesner & Lovinger, 2020). GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that promotes relaxation and drowsiness by lowering neuronal excitability.CBD’s effect on GABA receptors can promote deeper, more comfortable sleep. Furthermore, CBD’s ability to relieve anxiety and stress, which are significant causes of sleep disruption, indirectly supports greater sleep quality (Blessing et al., 2015;Moltke & Hindocha, 2021;Ortiz Rios et al., 2022). CBD provides a biological foundation for its action via modifying endocannabinoid system signalling, increasing adenosine effects, and regulating GABAergic neurotransmission (Martinez Naya et al., 2023;Yarar, 2020;Zou & Kumar, 2018).
Targeting protein kinase B (Akt) and its downstream signaling proteins are promising options in designing novel and potent drug candidates against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study explores the anti-HCC potentials of Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) extract via the involvement of Akt using both in silico and in vivo animal models of HCC approaches.
Phytoconstituents of C. sativa extract obtained from Gas Chromatography Mass-spectrometry (GCSM) were docked into the catalytic domain of Akt-2. The Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) model of HCC was treated with C. sativa extract. The effects of C. sativa extract treatments on DEN model of hepatocellular carcinoma were assessed by One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the treated and untreated groups
Cannabis sativa is a plant used for recreational and therapeutic purposes; however, many of the secondary metabolites in the plant have not been thoroughly investigated. Stilbenes are a class of compounds with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and are present in cannabis. Many stilbenes present in cannabis have been investigated for their therapeutic effects. Fourteen stilbenes have been identified to be present in cannabis, all of which are structurally dihydrostilbenoids, with half possessing a prenylated moiety. The stilbenes summarized in this analysis show varying degrees of therapeutic benefits ranging from anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-cancer to antioxidant effects. Many of the identified stilbenes have been researched to a limited extent for potential health benefits. In addition, predictive in silico modeling was performed on the fourteen identified cannabis-derived stilbenes. This modeling provides prospective activity, pharmacokinetic, metabolism, and permeability data, setting the groundwork for further investigation into these poorly characterized compounds.
Cannabis sativa L. is a medicinal plant with a long history. Phyto-cannabinoids are a class of compounds from C. sativa L. with varieties of structures. Endocannabinoids exist in the human body. This article provides an overview of natural cannabinoids (phyto-cannabinoids and endocannabinoids) with an emphasis on their pharmacology activities.
Humans have utilised cannabis products in various forms throughout the recorded history. To date, more than 500 biologically active components have been identified in the plants of the Cannabis genus, amongst which more than 100 were classified as phytocannabinoids (exocannabinoids). The plant genus Cannabis is a member of the plant family Cannabaceae, and there are three primary cannabis species which vary in their biochemical constituents: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. There has been a growing level of interest in research on the topical usage of a cannabis-based extract as a safer and more effective alternative to the usage of topical corticosteroids in treating some dermatoses. Together with the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors on the skin, it has been further illustrated that topical cannabis has anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, analgesics, wound healing and anti-proliferative effects on the skin.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus made it necessary to search for new options for both causal treatment and mitigation of its symptoms. Scientists and researchers around the world are constantly looking for the best therapeutic options. These difficult circumstances have also spurred the re-examination of the potential of natural substances contained in Cannabis sativa L. Cannabinoids, apart from CB1 and CB2 receptors, may act multifacetedly through a number of other receptors, such as the GPR55, TRPV1, PPARs, 5-HT1A, adenosine and glycine receptors.
In this context, terpenes are a highly diverse family of natural products which are synthesized by plants. This family have approximately 55,000 members with different chemical structures, presenting potential practical applications (Prakash, 2017; Serrano Vega et al., 2018). For this reason, it has been reported that terpenoids could ameliorate various symptoms caused by inflammation, inhibiting various steps of inflammatory processes. However, due to their low solubility and high instability, some alternatives, such as nanotechnology, have been explored.
Chronic inflammation is considered to be a silent killer because it is the underlying cause of a wide range of clinical disorders, from cardiovascular to neurological diseases, and from cancer to obesity. In addition, there are over 80 different types of debilitating autoimmune diseases for which there are no cure. Currently, the drugs that are available to suppress chronic inflammation are either ineffective or overtly suppress the inflammation, thereby causing increased susceptibility to infections and cancer. Thus, the development of a new class of drugs that can suppress chronic inflammation is imperative. Cannabinoids are a group of compounds produced in the body (endocannabinoids) or found in cannabis (phytocannabinoids) that act through cannabinoid receptors and various other receptors expressed widely in the brain and immune system.
Some cannabinoids have been identified as anti-inflammatory agents; however, their potential therapeutic or prophylactic applications remain controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a timely and comprehensive insight into cannabinoid-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in preclinical in vivo studies.