Entries by Michelle Smith

Cannabis Use and COVID-19 Hospitalization Outcomes. A Retrospective Study

In vitro studies have shown cannabinoids blocking SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry and affecting replication. There is a paucity of data assessing the effect of cannabis on patients hospitalized with COVID in the USA. The aim of our study was to assess mortality and complication rates in patients hospitalized with COVID stratified by cannabis use.

,

Cannabinol inhibits cell growth and triggers cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells

Cannabinol (CBN) is a weak-psychoactive cannabinoid and has been shown to exert several bio-logical activities. At the same time, not much is known about the anti-cancer activities of CBN. In this report, we characterized the anti-tumor effects of CBN on the glioma A172, liver cancer HepG2 and breast cancer HCC1806 cell lines. We found that CBN reduces the proliferation of the analyzed cancer cells and modulates the level of cannabinoid receptors, including GPR18, CB2 and GPR55. Furthermore, CBN inhibits the ERK1/2 pathway in A172 and HepG2 cells, while suppressing the AKT pathway in HCC1086 cells. Moreover, CBN may cause apoptosis through downregulation of p21 and p27 as well as a cell cycle arrest at G1 or S-phase via decreasing the CDK1, CDK2, and cyclin E1 levels. Taken together, these results offer new insights into the anti-cancer properties of CBN.

,

Use of cannabinol in the treatment of epilepsy: Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome , Dravet, and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Purpose: The objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficiency, safety and short and long term tolerability of Cannabidiol CBD, as an adjunct treatment , in children and adults with Dravet Syndrome (SD) and Lennox Gastaut Syndrome(LGS) or Tuberous Sclerosis Complex with inadequate control of seizures.

,

Changes in Prescribed Opioid Dosages Among Patients Receiving Medical Cannabis for Chronic Pain, New York State, 2017-2019

In spite of the huge advancements in both diagnosis and interventions, hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) remains a major hurdle in prostate cancer (PCa). Metabolic reprogramming plays a key role in PCa oncogenesis and resistance. However, the dynamics between metabolism and oncogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that two multi-target natural products, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG), suppress HRPC development in the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model by reprogramming metabolic and oncogenic signaling.

,

Cannabidiol alters mitochondrial bioenergetics via VDAC1 and triggers cell death in hormone-refractory prostate cancer

In spite of the huge advancements in both diagnosis and interventions, hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) remains a major hurdle in prostate cancer (PCa). Metabolic reprogramming plays a key role in PCa oncogenesis and resistance. However, the dynamics between metabolism and oncogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that two multi-target natural products, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG), suppress HRPC development in the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model by reprogramming metabolic and oncogenic signaling.

,

Therapeutic and Supportive Effects of Cannabinoids in Patients with Brain Tumors (CBD Oil and Cannabis)

The potential medicinal properties of Cannabis continue to garner attention, especially in the brain tumor domain. This attention is centered on quality of life and symptom management; however, it is amplified by a significant lack of therapeutic choices for this specific patient population. While the literature on this matter is young, published and anecdotal evidence imply that cannabis could be useful in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, stimulating appetite, reducing pain, and managing seizures. It may also decrease inflammation and cancer cell proliferation and survival, resulting in a benefit in overall patient survival. Current literature poses the challenge that it does not provide standardized guidance on dosing for the above potential indications and cannabis use is dominated by recreational purposes. Furthermore, integrated and longitudinal studies are needed but these are a challenge due to arcane laws surrounding the legality of such substances. The increasing need for evidence-based arguments about potential harms and benefits of cannabis, not only in cancer patients but for other medical use and recreational purposes, is desperately needed.

Young Adults’ Attitudes Towards Marijuana Use

Marijuana is categorized as an addictive substance that increases the likelihood of substance abuse in the future and is one of the most used illicit drugs in the United States. Marijuana use at a younger age increases the likelihood of continued use into young adulthood (Feeney & Kampman, 2016; Keyes et al., 2016; Friese, 2017). Young adults that use marijuana are more likely to introduce other peers and family members to the drug due to peer pressure, curiosity, or as a socialization tool.

,

The Effect of Cannabis Plant Extracts on Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma and the Quest for Cannabis-Based Personalized Therapy

The survival rate of head and neck cancer has only improved slightly over the last quarter century, raising the need for novel therapies to better treat this disease. This research examined the anti-tumor effects of 24 different types of cannabis extracts on head and neck cancer cells. Type III decarboxylated extracts with high levels of Cannabidiol (CBD) were the most effective in killing cancer cells. From these extracts, the specific active molecules were recognized. Combining CBD with Cannabichromene (CBC) in a 2:1 ratio made the effect even stronger. These findings can help doctors match cannabis extracts to treat head and neck cancer. CBD extracts enriched with the non-psychoactive CBC can offer patients more effective treatment. Further research is needed to develop new topical treatments from such extracts.

Cannabis and cannabinoid medications for the treatment of chronic orofacial pain: A scoping review

To collate and summarize existing evidence for the use of cannabis and cannabinoids to treat chronic orofacial pain (COP) by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS), oral medicine specialists (OMS), and orofacial pain specialists (OPS). We systematically screened for sources including a measure of effect of a cannabinoid compound on pain in COP patients that might be treated by our target specialists. Sources were selected by two authors independently. Sources were summarized by country, publication date, objective(s), COP condition(s) studied, cannabinoid(s) studied, methods, results, limitations, and conclusions. A thematic analysis and word cloud were conducted to elucidate commonalities, emphases, and gaps amongst identified sources.

,

Therapeutic and Supportive Effects of Cannabinoids in Patients with Brain Tumors (CBD Oil and Cannabis)

The potential medicinal properties of Cannabis continue to garner attention, especially in the brain tumor domain. This attention is centered on quality of life and symptom management; however, it is amplified by a significant lack of therapeutic choices for this specific patient population. While the literature on this matter is young, published and anecdotal evidence imply that cannabis could be useful in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, stimulating appetite, reducing pain, and managing seizures. It may also decrease inflammation and cancer cell proliferation and survival, resulting in a benefit in overall patient survival. Current literature poses the challenge that it does not provide standardized guidance on dosing for the above potential indications and cannabis use is dominated by recreational purposes. Furthermore, integrated and longitudinal studies are needed but these are a challenge due to arcane laws surrounding the legality of such substances. The increasing need for evidence-based arguments about potential harms and benefits of cannabis, not only in cancer patients but for other medical use and recreational purposes, is desperately needed.

Cannabis-Based Medicinal Products in the Management of Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder (EUPD): A Narrative Review and Case Series

Emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD) is a common mental health disorder, manifesting with a range of chronic and debilitating symptoms, including impaired social functioning, unstable mood, and risky impulsive or self-injurious behaviour. Whilst the exact aetiology has not been fully elucidated, implicated factors seem to include genetic factors, environmental causes such as trauma, and neurotransmitter deficits. The literature suggests that impaired functioning of the endocannabinoid system in key brain regions responsible for emotional processing and stress response may underlie the manifestation of EUPD symptoms. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2009 guidelines state that “no drugs have established efficacy in treating or managing EUPD”, and yet, patients are commonly prescribed medication which includes antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilisers. Here we present a case series of seven participants diagnosed with EUPD and treated with cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs).