The efficacy of cannabis treatment is determined by the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of the ingested composition. Despite smoking predominancy in cannabis treatment, very little is known regarding its yield and provision rate of cannabis APIs. Ten experiments were performed, studying changes in APIs content during smoking, using a designated smoking machine. APIs content was evaluated via analysis of a cigarette’s residuals and of the smoke composition; cannabinoid and terpene content were assessed.
Cannabis sativa is a multipurpose plant that has been used in medicine for centuries. Recently, considerable research has focused on the bioactive compounds of this plant, particularly cannabinoids and terpenes. Among other properties, these compounds exhibit antitumor effects in several cancer types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Cannabinoids show positive effects in the treatment of CRC by inducing apoptosis, proliferation, metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and autophagy. Terpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, limonene, and myrcene, have also been reported to have potential antitumor effects on CRC through the induction of apoptosis, the inhibition of cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. In addition, synergy effects between cannabinoids and terpenes are believed to be important factors in the treatment of CRC. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the potential of cannabinoids and terpenoids from C. sativa to serve as bioactive agents for the treatment of CRC while evidencing the need for further research to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action and the safety of these compounds.
The cannabis plant exerts its pharmaceutical activity primarily by the binding of cannabinoids to two G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The role that cannabis terpenes play in this activation has been considered and debated repeatedly, based on only limited experimental results. In the current study we used a controlled in-vitro heterologous expression system to quantify the activation of CB1 receptors by sixteen cannabis terpenes individually, by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone and by THC-terpenes mixtures. The results demonstrate that all terpenes, when tested individually, activate CB1 receptors, at about 10-50% of the activation by THC alone.
Little is known about the frequency with which different combinations of phytochemicals (chemovars) arise in Cannabis flower or whether common chemovars are associated with distinct pharmacodynamics and patient health outcomes. This study created a clinically relevant, user-friendly, scalable chemovar indexing system summarizing primary cannabinoid and terpene contents and tested whether the most frequently consumed chemovars differ in their treatment effectiveness and experienced side effects.
Interest in cultivating cannabis for medical and recreational purposes is increasing due to a dramatic shift in cannabis legislation worldwide. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the composition of secondary metabolites, cannabinoids, and terpenes grown in different environmental conditions is of primary importance for the medical and recreational use of cannabis. We compared the terpene and cannabinoid profiles using gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for commercial cannabis from genetically identical plants grown indoors using artificial light and artificially grown media or outdoors grown in living soil and natural sunlight. By analyzing the cannabinoids, we found significant variations in the metabolomic profile of cannabis for the different environments.
Cannabis sativa L. is a medicinal plant with a long history. Phyto-cannabinoids are a class of compounds from C. sativa L. with varieties of structures. Endocannabinoids exist in the human body. This article provides an overview of natural cannabinoids (phyto-cannabinoids and endocannabinoids) with an emphasis on their pharmacology activities.
Decades of research have improved our knowledge of cannabis polypharmacy and contributing phytochemicals, including terpenes. Reform of the legal status for cannabis possession and increased availability (medicinal and recreational) have resulted in cannabis use to combat the increasing prevalence of pain and may help to address the opioid crisis. Better understanding of the pharmacological effects of cannabis and its active components, including terpenes, may assist in identifying new therapeutic approaches and optimizing the use of cannabis and/or terpenes as analgesic agents.
In this context, terpenes are a highly diverse family of natural products which are synthesized by plants. This family have approximately 55,000 members with different chemical structures, presenting potential practical applications (Prakash, 2017; Serrano Vega et al., 2018). For this reason, it has been reported that terpenoids could ameliorate various symptoms caused by inflammation, inhibiting various steps of inflammatory processes. However, due to their low solubility and high instability, some alternatives, such as nanotechnology, have been explored.
The aim of study was to evaluate and compare the phytochemical profile, the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two standardized extracts from non-psychotropic (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol ≤0.2%) Cannabis sativa L. var. fibrante rich in cannabidiol (CBD). The two extracts, namely Cannabis Fibrante Hexane Extract 1 (CFHE1) and Cannabis Fibrante Hexane Extract 2 (CFHE2), were obtained by extraction with acidified hexane from dried flowering tops as such and after hydrodistillation of the essential oil, respectively.
Authors: Jeffrey Y. Hergenrather, Joshua Aviram, Yelena Vysotski, Salvatore Campisi-Pinto, Gil M. Lewitus, David Meiri Published in Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal January 2020 Abstract Objective The aim of this cross-sectional questionnaire-based study…
Authors: Hanuš LO. · Hod Y. Published in Karger August 2020 Abstract Cannabis sativa plant has not only cannabinoids as crucial compounds but also the other compounds that play important role…
Author: Eric P. Baron, Philippe Lucas, Joshua Eades & Olivia Hogue Published in The Journal of Headache and Pain May 2018 Abstract Background Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the…