Terpenes and Cannabidiol against Human Corona and Influenza Viruses – Anti-Inflammatory and Antiviral in Vitro Evaluation

The activity of the terpenes and Cannabidiol (CBD) against human coronavirus (HCoV) strain OC43 and influenza A (H1N1) was evaluated in human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells). Also, we examined whether these ingredients inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The tested preparations exhibited both anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects. The combination of terpenes was effective against both HCoV-OC43 and influenza A (H1N1) virus. The addition of CBD improved the antiviral activity in some, but not all cases. This variation in activity may suggest an antiviral mechanism. In addition, there was a strong correlation between the quantitative results from a cell-viability assay and the cytopathic effect after 72 h, as observed under a microscope. The anti-inflammatory properties of terpenes were demonstrated using a pro-inflammatory cytokine-inhibition assay, which revealed significant cytokine inhibition and enhanced by the addition of CBD.

The Neurotherapeutic Arsenal in Cannabis sativa: Insights into Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Neuroprotective Activity and Potential Entourage Effects

Terpenes, aromatic compounds imbuing distinct flavours, not only contribute to cannabis’s sensory profile but also modulate cannabinoid effects through diverse molecular mechanisms. Flavonoids, another cannabis component, demonstrate anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, particularly relevant to neuroinflammation. The entourage hypothesis posits that combined cannabinoid, terpene, and flavonoid action yields synergistic or additive effects, surpassing individual compound efficacy. Recognizing the nuanced interactions is crucial for unravelling cannabis’s complete therapeutic potential. Tailoring treatments based on the holistic composition of cannabis strains allows optimization of therapeutic outcomes while minimizing potential side effects. This review underscores the imperative to delve into the intricate roles of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, offering promising prospects for innovative therapeutic interventions and advocating continued research to unlock cannabis’s full therapeutic potential within the realm of natural plant-based medicine.

Inconsistency in the Composition of the Smoke of a Cannabis Cigarette as Smoking Progresses: Results, Mechanism, and Implications. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.

The efficacy of cannabis treatment is determined by the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of the ingested composition. Despite smoking predominancy in cannabis treatment, very little is known regarding its yield and provision rate of cannabis APIs. Ten experiments were performed, studying changes in APIs content during smoking, using a designated smoking machine. APIs content was evaluated via analysis of a cigarette’s residuals and of the smoke composition; cannabinoid and terpene content were assessed.

Antitumor Effects of Cannabis sativa Bioactive Compounds on Colorectal Carcinogenesis

Cannabis sativa is a multipurpose plant that has been used in medicine for centuries. Recently, considerable research has focused on the bioactive compounds of this plant, particularly cannabinoids and terpenes. Among other properties, these compounds exhibit antitumor effects in several cancer types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Cannabinoids show positive effects in the treatment of CRC by inducing apoptosis, proliferation, metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and autophagy. Terpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, limonene, and myrcene, have also been reported to have potential antitumor effects on CRC through the induction of apoptosis, the inhibition of cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. In addition, synergy effects between cannabinoids and terpenes are believed to be important factors in the treatment of CRC. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the potential of cannabinoids and terpenoids from C. sativa to serve as bioactive agents for the treatment of CRC while evidencing the need for further research to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action and the safety of these compounds.


The cannabis plant exerts its pharmaceutical activity primarily by the binding of cannabinoids to two G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The role that cannabis terpenes play in this activation has been considered and debated repeatedly, based on only limited experimental results. In the current study we used a controlled in-vitro heterologous expression system to quantify the activation of CB1 receptors by sixteen cannabis terpenes individually, by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone and by THC-terpenes mixtures. The results demonstrate that all terpenes, when tested individually, activate CB1 receptors, at about 10-50% of the activation by THC alone.

Table 2 Descriptions of frequently consumed Cannabis flower chemovar index codes

Little is known about the frequency with which different combinations of phytochemicals (chemovars) arise in Cannabis flower or whether common chemovars are associated with distinct pharmacodynamics and patient health outcomes. This study created a clinically relevant, user-friendly, scalable chemovar indexing system summarizing primary cannabinoid and terpene contents and tested whether the most frequently consumed chemovars differ in their treatment effectiveness and experienced side effects.

Comparison of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Profiles in Commercial Cannabis from Natural and Artificial Cultivation

Interest in cultivating cannabis for medical and recreational purposes is increasing due to a dramatic shift in cannabis legislation worldwide. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the composition of secondary metabolites, cannabinoids, and terpenes grown in different environmental conditions is of primary importance for the medical and recreational use of cannabis. We compared the terpene and cannabinoid profiles using gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for commercial cannabis from genetically identical plants grown indoors using artificial light and artificially grown media or outdoors grown in living soil and natural sunlight. By analyzing the cannabinoids, we found significant variations in the metabolomic profile of cannabis for the different environments.

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of selected cannabinoids and terpenes from Cannabis Sativa L employing human primary leukocytes

Cannabis sativa L. is a medicinal plant with a long history. Phyto-cannabinoids are a class of compounds from C. sativa L. with varieties of structures. Endocannabinoids exist in the human body. This article provides an overview of natural cannabinoids (phyto-cannabinoids and endocannabinoids) with an emphasis on their pharmacology activities.

Analgesic Potential of Terpenes Derived from Cannabis sativa

Decades of research have improved our knowledge of cannabis polypharmacy and contributing phytochemicals, including terpenes. Reform of the legal status for cannabis possession and increased availability (medicinal and recreational) have resulted in cannabis use to combat the increasing prevalence of pain and may help to address the opioid crisis. Better understanding of the pharmacological effects of cannabis and its active components, including terpenes, may assist in identifying new therapeutic approaches and optimizing the use of cannabis and/or terpenes as analgesic agents.

Therapeutic Applications of Terpenes on Inflammatory Diseases

In this context, terpenes are a highly diverse family of natural products which are synthesized by plants. This family have approximately 55,000 members with different chemical structures, presenting potential practical applications (Prakash, 2017; Serrano Vega et al., 2018). For this reason, it has been reported that terpenoids could ameliorate various symptoms caused by inflammation, inhibiting various steps of inflammatory processes. However, due to their low solubility and high instability, some alternatives, such as nanotechnology, have been explored.

Phytochemical characterization and biological properties of two standardized extracts from a non-psychotropic Cannabis sativa L. cannabidiol (CBD)-chemotype

The aim of study was to evaluate and compare the phytochemical profile, the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two standardized extracts from non-psychotropic (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol ≤0.2%) Cannabis sativa L. var. fibrante rich in cannabidiol (CBD). The two extracts, namely Cannabis Fibrante Hexane Extract 1 (CFHE1) and Cannabis Fibrante Hexane Extract 2 (CFHE2), were obtained by extraction with acidified hexane from dried flowering tops as such and after hydrodistillation of the essential oil, respectively.

Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Doses are Associated with Adult ADHD Status of Medical Cannabis Patients

Authors: Jeffrey Y. Hergenrather, Joshua Aviram, Yelena Vysotski, Salvatore Campisi-Pinto, Gil M. Lewitus, David Meiri Published in Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal January 2020 Abstract Objective The aim of this cross-sectional questionnaire-based study…