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Cannabidiol and brain function: current knowledge and future perspectives

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, commonly known as cannabis or hemp. Although currently available CBD products do not meet the safety standards of most food safety authorities to be approved as a dietary supplement or food additive, CBD has been gaining widespread attention in recent years due to its various potential health benefits. While primarily known for its therapeutic effects in managing epileptic seizures, psychosis, anxiety, (neuropathic) pain, and inflammation, CBD’s influence on brain function has also piqued the interest of researchers and individuals seeking to enhance cognitive performance. The primary objective of this review is to gather, synthesize, and consolidate scientifically proven evidence on the impact of CBD on brain function and its therapeutic significance in treating neurological and mental disorders. First, basic background information on CBD, including its biomolecular properties and mechanisms of action is presented. Next, evidence for CBD effects in the human brain is provided followed by a discussion on the potential implications of CBD as a neurotherapeutic agent.

Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Domestic Marijuana (Bong) Uses for Common Diseases in Booni Chitral Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Cannabis (marijuana) based medicines have been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures for centuries. Traditional herbal medicine continues to serve as the most cost-effective and readily available form of treatment within the primary healthcare system for communities that do not have access to modern medicine. This study investigated the indigenous knowledge of folk healing among tribal minorities at selected sites in Booni Upper Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa . In this study, researcher explored the effects of using cannabis (bong) for medicinal purposes. This study intends to shed light on the cultural and domestic contexts of locally grown marijuana in order to discover its possible therapeutic uses for common ailments. In order to study the household utilization of marijuana for common ailments, a qualitative research approach is to conduct in-depth interviews with people who have first-hand experience using marijuana for health purposes in the comfort of their own homes. The researcher interviewed 10 dwellers for which 3 were females and 7 were males in Booni Upper Chitral selected through a snowball sampling technique.

Neurocognitive Impact of Exposure to Cannabis Concentrates and Cannabinoids Including Vaping in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

During adolescence, significant changes unfold in the brain’s maturation process. The density of white matter increases, accompanied by the pruning back of gray matter. This critical and vulnerable period becomes especially noteworthy in the context of drug use, as adolescents are extensively exposed to substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis. The concern is heightened now that cannabis has been legalized for recreational use in many places, leading to increased exposure levels. Additionally, knowledge about the impact of cannabis on neurocognitive development during this stage is limited. This knowledge gap compounds the issue, making it even more concerning. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out based on the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using medical databases such as PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Medline, Cochrane Library, Internet Archive Scholar, and Embase-Elsevier for relevant medical literature. The identified articles were reviewed, eligibility criteria were applied, and 19 research articles were identified. The final papers explored the correlation between children’s and adolescents’ exposure to cannabis-containing compounds and subsequent changes in the central nervous system (CNS).

Role of Cannabinoids in Oral Cancer

Cannabinoids have incited scientific interest in different conditions, including malignancy, due to increased exposure to cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoids are increasingly used to alleviate cancer-related symptoms. This review paper aims to clarify the recent findings on the relationship between cannabinoids and oral cancer, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that could link cannabinoids with oral cancer pathogenesis. In addition, we provide an overview of the current and future perspectives on the management of oral cancer patients using cannabinoid compounds. Epidemiological data on cannabis use and oral cancer development are conflicting. However, in vitro studies assessing the effects of cannabinoids on oral cancer cells have unveiled promising anti-cancer features, including apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Downregulation of various signaling pathways with anti-cancer effects has been identified in experimental models of oral cancer cells exposed to cannabinoids. Furthermore, in some countries, several synthetic or phytocannabinoids have been approved as medical adjuvants for the management of cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Cannabinoids may improve overall well-being by relieving anxiety, depression, pain, and nausea. In conclusion, the link between cannabinoid compounds and oral cancer is complex, and further research is necessary to elucidate the potential risks or their protective impact on oral cancer.

The Effect of Oil-Based Cannabis Extracts on Metabolic Parameters and Microbiota Composition of Mice Fed a Standard and a High-Fat Diet

The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related pathologies is lower in frequent cannabis users compared to non-users. It is well established that the endocannabinoid system has an important role in the development of obesity. We recently demonstrated that prolonged oral consumption of purified Δ-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but not of cannabidiol (CBD), ameliorates diet-induced obesity and improves obesity-related metabolic complications in a high-fat diet mouse model. However, the effect of commercially available medical cannabis oils that contain numerous additional active molecules has not been examined. We tested herein the effects of THC- and CBD-enriched medical cannabis oils on obesity parameters and the gut microbiota composition of C57BL/6 male mice fed with either a high-fat or standard diet. We also assessed the levels of prominent endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like lipid mediators in the liver.

Identification of Anti-Neuroinflammatory Bioactive Compounds in Essential Oils and Aqueous Distillation Residues Obtained from Commercial Varieties of Cannabis sativa L.

Neuroinflammation, which is mainly triggered by microglia, is a key contributor to multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products, and in particular Cannabis sativa L., due to its richness in phytochemical components, represent ideal candidates to counteract neuroinflammation. We previously characterized different C. sativa commercial varieties which showed significantly different chemical profiles. On these bases, the aim of this study was to evaluate essential oils and aqueous distillation residues from the inflorescences of three different hemp varieties for their anti-neuroinflammatory activity in BV-2 microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with aqueous residues or essential oils and then activated with LPS. Unlike essential oils, aqueous residues showed negligible effects in terms of anti-inflammatory activity. Among the essential oils, the one obtained from ‘Gorilla Glue’ was the most effective in inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators and in upregulating anti-inflammatory ones through the modulation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Moreover, the sesquiterpenes (E)-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide were identified as the main contributors to the essential oils’ anti-inflammatory activity. To our knowledge, the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of α-humulene has not been previously described. In conclusion, our work shows that C. sativa essential oils characterized by high levels of sesquiterpenes can be promising candidates in the prevention/counteraction of neuroinflammation.

Individuals’ Values and Preferences Regarding Medical Cannabis for Chronic Pain: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

In Canada, cannabis for medical reasons has been legal since 2001. It has been used as one of the many strategies for chronic or ongoing pain, but doctors are not given consistent information regarding its use, and existing guidance does not include the patient point of view. We did this study to explore how people living with chronic pain feel about the use of medical cannabis. We asked 52 people living with chronic pain, including current medical cannabis users, previous users, and non-users. We found that many people who used cannabis for their pain had to experiment to determine what cannabis products, routes, and doses worked for them. Benefits of medical cannabis included relief from pain, better sleep, and improved mental health. Reasons for stopping medical cannabis included no to little improvement in pain and/or sleep or the presence of unwanted side effects. Cannabidiol (CBD) products resulted in fewer unwanted effects (eg, physical or mental impairment) compared to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) products. People discussed different routes of cannabis use including oral routes that provided longer-lasting pain relief but with a slower onset and inhaled routes with a faster onset of relief but with shorter-lived effects. People’s decisions regarding medical cannabis use for chronic pain were varied, suggesting these decisions are likely to be sensitive to individual’s values and preferences. More research is needed to learn what doses, products, and routes work for specific chronic pain conditions.

Cannabis Use and Incident Atrial Fibrillation in a Longitudinal Cohort

Cannabis use is increasing worldwide. While prior studies have reported an association between cannabis use and a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), most were cross-sectional and generally relied on diagnostic coding to identify cannabis users, which may not be representative of the typical, recreational cannabis user. To examine the association between recreational cannabis use and lifetime AF risk.

Cannabis use in the United States and its impact on gastrointestinal health

Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system might contribute to various GI disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and cyclic vomiting syndrome, and endocannabinoids have been found to regulate visceral sensation, nausea, vomiting, and the gut microbiome. Cannabis has been shown to have antiemetic properties, and the US Food and Drug Administration has approved cannabis‐based medications for treating chemotherapy‐induced nausea and vomiting. Yet, chronic heavy cannabis use has been linked to recurrent episodes of severe nausea and intractable vomiting (cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome). Given the consid- erable heterogeneity in the scientific literature, it is unclear if cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is truly a distinct entity or a subtype of cyclic vomiting that is unmasked by heavy cannabis use and the associated dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system. The changes in cannabis legalization, availabil- ity, and public risk perceptions have outpaced research in this area and there is a need for robust, prospective, large‐scale studies to understand the effects of cannabis use on GI health.

A preliminary study evaluating self-reported effects of cannabis and cannabinoids on neuropathic pain and pain medication use in people with spinal cord injury

Approximately 60% of individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) experience neuropathic pain, which often persists despite the use of various pharmacological treatments. Increasingly, the potential analgesic effects of cannabis and cannabinoid products have been studied; however, little research has been conducted among those with SCI-related neuropathic pain. Therefore, the primary objective of the study was to investigate the perceived effects of cannabis and cannabinoid use on neuropathic pain among those who were currently or had previously used these approaches. Additionally, the study aimed to determine if common pain medications are being substituted by cannabis and cannabinoids.

Cannabis vaporisation: Understanding products, devices and risks

Vaporisation is a common method of cannabis administration. Inconsistent terminology and jargon regarding vaporisation has led to confusion. The increasing public interest and access to cannabis, combined with possible safety concerns associated with certain cannabis vaping products, warrants improved consumer and public and health care professional knowledge.

Therapeutic use of medical Cannabis in neurological diseases: a clinical update

The use of medical Cannabis has increased in recent years due to changing legal circumstances in many countries. Approval exists only for a few neurological conditions such as rare forms of epilepsy or spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Beyond that, however, medical Cannabis is used for a wide range of neurological conditions and symptoms. In Germany, in parallel with new legislation that has simplified the prescription of medical Cannabis, an accompanying survey has been implemented for which initial data are now available. In this context, our review provides an overview of the evidence for the therapeutic use of medical Cannabis in neurology, the potential benefits, and side effects.