Analysis of elemental impurities in cannabis following vaporization

The use of vaporizers to inhale cannabis is a technique that has risen in popularity among the American public. There is a general perception that vaporizers are “safer” when compared to more traditional cannabis smoking via combustion (i.e., cigarettes). The inherent use of heated air in vaporizers might reduce the respiratory toxicants or protein toxins by heating cannabis to a temperature where active compounds form in vapor phase. Yet this temperature is below the point of combustion where smoke and associated toxicants are produced. The elemental impurities are a general concern in all botanical products including cannabis and cannabis-derived products (CCDPs). This study aimed to investigate the potential transfer of those metallic elements from cannabis material to cannabis vapor through the vaporization process.

The Basic Science of Cannabinoids

The cannabis plant has been used for centuries to manage the symptoms of various ailments including pain. Hundreds of chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from the plant and elicit a variety of physiological responses by binding to specific receptors and interacting with numerous other proteins. In addition, the body makes its own cannabinoid-like compounds that are integrally involved in modulating normal and pathophysiological processes. As the legal cannabis landscape continues to evolve within the United States and throughout the world, it is important to understand the rich science behind the effects of the plant and the implications for providers and patients. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the basic science of the cannabinoids by describing the discovery and function of the endocannabinoid system, pharmacology of cannabinoids, and areas for future research and therapeutic development as they relate to perioperative and chronic pain medicine.

Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA) inhibits the TRPM7 ion channel through its kinase domain

In this study, we comprehensively investigated the most common major and minor cannabinoids to determine their potential efficacy on TRPM7 channel function. Here, we found that approximately half of the cannabinoids tested suppressed TRPM7 currents to some degree, with CBGA having the strongest inhibitory effect on TRPM7. We determined that the CBGA-mediated inhibition of TRPM7 requires a functional kinase domain , is sensitized by both intracellular Mg⋅ATP and free Mg2+, and reduced by increases in intracellular Ca2+. Finally, we demonstrate that CBGA inhibits native TRPM7 in B lymphocytes cell line.

Efficacy and usability of a cannabidiol-infused tampon for the relief of primary dysmenorrhea

This study aimed to assess efficacy and usability of Cannabidiol (CBD) infused tampons for the relief of primary dysmenorrhea, a condition affecting 50–95% assigned female at birth. While primary dysmenorrhea affects a significant percentage of females, there remains a notable absence of specialized medications or devices to alleviate the intense pain that hinders daily activities. We have developed a CBD-infused tampon, lubricated for comfort and ease, recognising the potential benefits of cannabinoids in pain management.

Medical Cannabis: A Review from the American Society of Pain and Neuroscience

Cannabinoids have recently gained a renewed interest due to their potential applicability to various medical conditions, specifically the management of chronic pain conditions. Unlike many other medications, medical cannabis is not associated with serious adverse events, and no overdose deaths have been reported. However, both safety and efficacy data for medical cannabis treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain conditions are lacking. Therefore, representatives from the American Society of Pain and Neuroscience summarize the evidence, according to level and grade, for medical cannabis treatment of several different pain conditions.

An analysis of clinical outcomes of medicinal cannabis therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

This study aims to analyze the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and safety outcomes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients treated with cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs).

Cannabidiol represses miR-143 to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration after myocardial infarction

Mammalian heart is capable to regenerate almost completely early after birth through endogenous cardiomyocyte proliferation. However, this regenerative capacity diminishes gradually with growth and is nearly lost in adulthood. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major component of cannabis and has various biological activities to regulate oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and cell death. The present study was conducted to investigate the pharmacological effects of CBD on heart regeneration in post-MI mice.

A Semi-Naturalistic, Open-Label Trial Examining the Effect of Prescribed Medical Cannabis on Neurocognitive Performance

Medical cannabis use is increasing in Australia and other jurisdictions, yet little is known about the effects of medical cannabis on cognitive function. Findings from studies of non-medical (‘recreational’) cannabis may not be applicable to patients using prescribed medical cannabis to manage a health condition.

Cure-All cannabidiol? The cannabidiol content of commercial products

The recent easing of regulations around the world regarding Cannabis sativa and its main active compounds, such as cannabidiol (CBD), led to an explosion in the number of over-the-counter consumer products. The number of product types is surpassed by the vast quantity of products of each type, but even this is exceeded by the associated health claims which range from the benign, such as ‘fighting inflammation’, to the completely asinine such as ‘fighting the tyranny of the urgent’ or ‘shedding light on your inner darkness’. Any health claim should in the first instance be supported by the product containing the correct actives at the correct dosage.

Therapeutic use of medical Cannabis in neurological diseases: a clinical update

The use of medical Cannabis has increased in recent years due to changing legal circumstances in many countries. Approval exists only for a few neurological conditions such as rare forms of epilepsy or spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Beyond that, however, medical Cannabis is used for a wide range of neurological conditions and symptoms. In Germany, in parallel with new legislation that has simplified the prescription of medical Cannabis, an accompanying survey has been implemented for which initial data are now available. In this context, our review provides an overview of the evidence for the therapeutic use of medical Cannabis in neurology, the potential benefits, and side effects.

Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in immunotherapy: helpful or harmful?

Numerous studies in various cancer models have demonstrated that ingredients of cannabis can influence tumor growth through the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a network of molecules (mediators, receptors, transporters, enzymes) that maintains homeostasis and protection in many tissues. The main constituents of the ECS are the classical cannabinoid (CB) receptors, such as CB1 and CB2, their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and the endocannabinoids’ synthesizing and degrading enzymes. The role of the ECS in cancer is still unclear and its effects often depend on the tumor entity and the expression levels of CB receptors. Many studies have highlighted the tumor cell-killing potential of CB1 agonists. However, cannabis is also known as an immunosuppressant and some data suggest that the use of cannabis during immunotherapy worsens treatment outcomes in cancer patients.

In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Cannabichromene Isolated from Hemp

Cannabichromene (CBC), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, has recently been shown to possess several medicinal properties. However, how CBC produces anti-inflammatory effects and the mechanisms of this remain poorly studied. Therefore, we extracted and purified the CBC from the Cannabis sativa cv. pink pepper (hemp cultivar). The efficacy of CBC in reducing inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and a λ-carrageenan-induced mouse model was then evaluated. CBC had no cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 20 μM and inhibited nitric oxide production by approximately 50% at a concentration of 20 μM.