Urogenital Malignancy and Cannabis Use: A Narrative Review

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. An increasing number of jurisdictions are legalising cannabis for both medicinal and recreational use. The changing cannabis market has resulted in both an increase in the number of people consuming these compounds, and an increase in the frequency and quantity of cannabis being used. Endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids act on receptors across the entire body including the genitourinary system; however, there is a paucity of understanding of how cannabinoids affect genitourinary malignancy. To present a narrative review of the available literature detailing the relationship between cannabis and the incidence, diagnosis, and management of genitourinary malignancy.

Comparative Investigation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Effects of the Extracts from the Inflorescences and Leaves of the Cannabis sativa L. cv. strawberry

Cannabis sativa products have historically been used for healing purposes; now their biological properties are supported with scientific evidence, but modern research has not yet fully developed its therapeutic potential. This study focuses on the cultivar of C. sativa called strawberry to understand the biological and medical potentials of hydroalcoholic extracts from two different parts of the plant: leaves and inflorescences. Two biological assets were investigated including antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

The Microbiome and Gut Endocannabinoid System in the Regulation of Stress Responses and Metabolism

The endocannabinoid system, with its receptors and ligands, is present in the gut epithelium and enteroendocrine cells, and is able to modulate brain functions, both indirectly through circulating gut-derived factors and directly through the vagus nerve, finally acting on the brain’s mechanisms regarding metabolism and behavior. The gut endocannabinoid system also regulates gut motility, permeability, and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, microbiota composition has been shown to influence the activity of the endocannabinoid system. This review examines the interaction between microbiota, intestinal endocannabinoid system, metabolism, and stress responses. We hypothesize that the crosstalk between microbiota and intestinal endocannabinoid system has a prominent role in stress-induced changes in the gut-brain axis affecting metabolic and mental health.

Cannabis – A state of the art about the millenary plant: Part I

Multiple lines of evidence suggest a central role for the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the neuronal development and cognitive function and in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome (FXS). This review describes the ECS, its role in the central nervous system, how it is dysregulated in FXS, and the potential role of cannabidiol as a treatment for FXS. FXS is caused by deficiency or absence of the fragile X messenger ribonucleoprotein 1 (FMR1) protein, FMRP, typically due to the presence of >200 cytosine, guanine, guanine sequence repeats leading to methylation of the FMR1 gene promoter.

Role of the endocannabinoid system in fragile X syndrome: potential mechanisms for benefit from cannabidiol treatment

Multiple lines of evidence suggest a central role for the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the neuronal development and cognitive function and in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome (FXS). This review describes the ECS, its role in the central nervous system, how it is dysregulated in FXS, and the potential role of cannabidiol as a treatment for FXS. FXS is caused by deficiency or absence of the fragile X messenger ribonucleoprotein 1 (FMR1) protein, FMRP, typically due to the presence of >200 cytosine, guanine, guanine sequence repeats leading to methylation of the FMR1 gene promoter.

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Medications for the Treatment of Chronic Orofacial Pain: A Scoping Review

We systematically screened for sources including a measure of effect of a cannabinoid compound on pain in COP patients that might be treated by our target specialists. Sources were selected by two authors independently. Sources were summarized by country, publication date, objective(s), COP condition(s) studied, cannabinoid(s) studied, methods, results, limitations, and conclusions. A thematic analysis and word cloud were conducted to elucidate commonalities, emphases, and gaps amongst identified sources.

Heterogeneity in hormone-dependent breast cancer and therapy: Steroid hormones, HER2, melanoma antigens, and cannabinoid receptors

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. The prognosis of the disease and patients’ response to different types of therapies varies in different subgroups of this heterogeneous disease. The subgroups are based on histological and molecular characteristics of the tumor, especially the expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Hormone-dependent breast cancer, determined predominantly by the presence of ER, is the most common type of breast cancer. Patients with hormone-dependent breast cancer have an available targeted therapy, however, tumor cells can develop resistance to the therapy, which is a major obstacle limiting the success of treatment and enabling relapse to metastatic disease.

Assessment of clinical outcomes of medicinal cannabis therapy for depression: analysis from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry

Although pre-clinical experiments associate cannabinoids with reduced depressive symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical evidence. This study aims to analyze the health-related quality of life changes and safety outcomes in patients prescribed cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) for depression.

The E-cigarette or Vaping Product Use–Associated Lung Injury Epidemic: Pathogenesis, Management, and Future Directions

E-cigarette or vaping product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) is a severe pulmonary illness associated with the use of e-cigarettes or vaping products that was officially identified and named in 2019. This American Thoracic Society workshop was convened in 2021 to identify and prioritize research and regulatory needs to adequately respond to the EVALI outbreak and to prevent similar instances of disease associated with e-cigarette or vaping product use. An interdisciplinary group of 26 experts in adult and pediatric clinical care, public health, regulatory oversight, and toxicology were convened for the workshop. Four major topics were examined: 1) the public health and regulatory response to EVALI; 2) EVALI clinical care; 3) mechanisms contributing to EVALI; and 4) needed actions to address the health effects of EVALI.

The effect of medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease: analysis from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry

annabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) have shown promising preclinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, clinical trials have not demonstrated effects on inflammation. This study aims to analyze changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and adverse events in IBD patients prescribed CBMPs.

Phytochemical Constituents and Derivatives of Cannabis sativa; Bridging the Gap in Melanoma Treatment

Schanknecht, E., Bachari, A., Nassar, N., Piva, T., & Mantri, N. (2023). Phytochemical Constituents and Derivatives of Cannabis sativa; Bridging the Gap in Melanoma Treatment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(1), 859.

Mutual Links between the Endocannabinoidome and the Gut Microbiome, with Special Reference to Companion Animals: A Nutritional Viewpoint

Dysbiosis, which is an imbalance of gut microbial composition and function, can be caused by several external as well as internal factors, contributing to the onset of human and animal disorders, not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, the mechanisms leading to disease development involve a crucial interaction between the gut microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host. The expanded endocannabinoid system, also known as the “endocannabinoidome”, includes endocannabinoids (e.g., anandamide) and endocannabinoid-like mediators (e.g., palmitoylethanolamide), their receptors and metabolic enzymes. Dysregulation of this newly recognized endogenous system is also involved in several diseases. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a link between the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome exists. Here, we review some of the latest discoveries related to the functional link between these two complex systems and the disorders emerging from the malfunctioning of such a mutual interaction: for example, idiopathic inflammation, chronic enteropathies, metabolic disease and certain neuroinflammatory disorders. It is expected that in the near future new nutritional tools will emerge based on the expanding knowledge in this cutting-edge field.