The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related pathologies is lower in frequent cannabis users compared to non-users. It is well established that the endocannabinoid system has an important role in the development of obesity. We recently demonstrated that prolonged oral consumption of purified Δ-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but not of cannabidiol (CBD), ameliorates diet-induced obesity and improves obesity-related metabolic complications in a high-fat diet mouse model. However, the effect of commercially available medical cannabis oils that contain numerous additional active molecules has not been examined. We tested herein the effects of THC- and CBD-enriched medical cannabis oils on obesity parameters and the gut microbiota composition of C57BL/6 male mice fed with either a high-fat or standard diet. We also assessed the levels of prominent endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like lipid mediators in the liver.
The mechanisms of β-caryophyllene (BCP)-induced analgesia are not well studied. Here, we tested the efficacy of BCP in an acute postsurgical pain model and evaluated its effect on the endocannabinoid system. Rats were treated with vehicle and 10, 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg BCP. Paw withdrawal responses to mechanical stimuli were evaluated using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer. Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), were also evaluated in plasma and tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) activity was evaluated in vitro as well as ex vivo
The goal of this review was to examine the role and practical applications of integrative oncology strategies in supporting immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment of adult solid tumours.
Recent Findings Beyond tumour-intrinsic factors, several patient-associated factors afect ICI response, including germline genetics, systemic infammation, the gut microbiota, and diet. Current promising supportive interventions include a Mediterranean-style diet with over 20 g of fbre, regular exercise, use of live biotherapeutics, minimisation of PPI and antibiotic use, and ensuring vitamin D repletion, with many other integrative oncology approaches under study. Caution around medical cannabis use in patients on ICIs is advised due to previously documented adverse impact on overall survival, while VAE (Viscum album extract) therapy studies have not highlighted any safety concerns so far.
Multiple studies exist identifying cannabidiol (CBD) as an effective part of an orthopaedic patient’s pain regimen; however, there is a paucity of studies elucidating orthopaedic surgeons’ perception of the use and prescription of CBD in the medical setting. This study surveys orthopaedic sports medicine surgeons about their previous education on and current perceptions and usage of CBD in their medical practice.
Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious illness caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 is variable, often including symptoms such as fever, cough, headache, fatigue, and an altered sense of smell and taste. Recently, post-acute “long” COVID-19 has emerged as a concern, with symptoms persisting beyond the acute infection. Vaccinations remain one of the most effective preventative methods against severe COVID-19 outcomes and the development of long-term COVID-19. However, individuals with underlying health conditions may not mount an adequate protective response to COVID-19 vaccines, increasing the likelihood of severe symptoms, hospitalization, and the development of long-term COVID-19 in high-risk populations. This review explores the potential therapeutic role of cannabinoids in limiting the susceptibility and severity of infection, both pre- and post-SARS-CoV-19 infection.
The Cannabis Act (Bill C-45) was enacted in 2018, to legalize and regulate the use, production, and sale of nonmedical cannabis in Canada. While public health and safety implications of cannabis legalization have yet to be elucidated, the wide availability of cannabis necessitates health care providers to be knowledgeable about therapeutic potential and side effects of use. This study aimed to examine the temporal trends over two decades and the impact of the Cannabis Act in Canada, implemented in October 2018, on substance use, semen parameters, and testosterone levels of infertile men.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the comparative benefits and harms of opioids and cannabis for medical use for chronic non-cancer pain.Randomised trials comparing any type of cannabis for medical use or opioids, against each other or placebo, with patient follow-up ≥4 weeks.
Neuroinflammation, which is mainly triggered by microglia, is a key contributor to multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products, and in particular Cannabis sativa L., due to its richness in phytochemical components, represent ideal candidates to counteract neuroinflammation. We previously characterized different C. sativa commercial varieties which showed significantly different chemical profiles. On these bases, the aim of this study was to evaluate essential oils and aqueous distillation residues from the inflorescences of three different hemp varieties for their anti-neuroinflammatory activity in BV-2 microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with aqueous residues or essential oils and then activated with LPS. Unlike essential oils, aqueous residues showed negligible effects in terms of anti-inflammatory activity. Among the essential oils, the one obtained from ‘Gorilla Glue’ was the most effective in inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators and in upregulating anti-inflammatory ones through the modulation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Moreover, the sesquiterpenes (E)-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide were identified as the main contributors to the essential oils’ anti-inflammatory activity. To our knowledge, the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of α-humulene has not been previously described. In conclusion, our work shows that C. sativa essential oils characterized by high levels of sesquiterpenes can be promising candidates in the prevention/counteraction of neuroinflammation.
The morbidity and mortality rates associated with vascular disease (VD) have been gradually increasing. Currently, the most common treatment for VD is surgery, with the progress in drug therapy remaining slow. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a natural extract of Cannabis sativa L. with sedative, analgesic, and nonaddictive properties. CBD binds to 56 cardiovascular-related receptors and exerts extensive regulatory effects on the cardiovascular system, making it a potential pharmacological agent for the management of VD. However, most CBD studies have focused on neurological and cardiac diseases, and research on the management of VD with CBD is still rare. In this review, we summarize the currently available data on CBD in the management of VD, addressing four aspects: the major molecular targets of CBD in VD management, pharmacokinetic properties, therapeutic effects of CBD on common VDs, and side effects. The findings indicate that CBD has anti-anxiety, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammatory properties and can inhibit abnormal proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells; these effects suggest CBD as a therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis, stress-induced hypertension, diabetes-related vasculopathy, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and vascular damage caused by smoking and alcohol abuse. This study provides a theoretical basis for further research on CBD in the management of VD.
In Canada, cannabis for medical reasons has been legal since 2001. It has been used as one of the many strategies for chronic or ongoing pain, but doctors are not given consistent information regarding its use, and existing guidance does not include the patient point of view. We did this study to explore how people living with chronic pain feel about the use of medical cannabis. We asked 52 people living with chronic pain, including current medical cannabis users, previous users, and non-users. We found that many people who used cannabis for their pain had to experiment to determine what cannabis products, routes, and doses worked for them. Benefits of medical cannabis included relief from pain, better sleep, and improved mental health. Reasons for stopping medical cannabis included no to little improvement in pain and/or sleep or the presence of unwanted side effects. Cannabidiol (CBD) products resulted in fewer unwanted effects (eg, physical or mental impairment) compared to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) products. People discussed different routes of cannabis use including oral routes that provided longer-lasting pain relief but with a slower onset and inhaled routes with a faster onset of relief but with shorter-lived effects. People’s decisions regarding medical cannabis use for chronic pain were varied, suggesting these decisions are likely to be sensitive to individual’s values and preferences. More research is needed to learn what doses, products, and routes work for specific chronic pain conditions.
Cannabis use is increasing worldwide. While prior studies have reported an association between cannabis use and a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), most were cross-sectional and generally relied on diagnostic coding to identify cannabis users, which may not be representative of the typical, recreational cannabis user. To examine the association between recreational cannabis use and lifetime AF risk.
Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system might contribute to various GI disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and cyclic vomiting syndrome, and endocannabinoids have been found to regulate visceral sensation, nausea, vomiting, and the gut microbiome. Cannabis has been shown to have antiemetic properties, and the US Food and Drug Administration has approved cannabis‐based medications for treating chemotherapy‐induced nausea and vomiting. Yet, chronic heavy cannabis use has been linked to recurrent episodes of severe nausea and intractable vomiting (cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome). Given the consid- erable heterogeneity in the scientific literature, it is unclear if cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is truly a distinct entity or a subtype of cyclic vomiting that is unmasked by heavy cannabis use and the associated dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system. The changes in cannabis legalization, availabil- ity, and public risk perceptions have outpaced research in this area and there is a need for robust, prospective, large‐scale studies to understand the effects of cannabis use on GI health.