Cannabinoids and the placenta: Receptors, signaling and outcomes
In this article, we aim to summarize how phytocannabinoids can impact placental development and function. Specifically, the cannabinoids and their actions at the different receptors are described, with receptor localization throughout the human and murine placenta discussed. Findings from studies that included placental analysis and how cannabinoid signaling may modulate critical developmental processing including cell proliferation, angiogenesis and migration are described. Considering the current research, prenatal cannabinoid exposure may significantly impact placental development, and, as such, identifying windows of placental vulnerability for each cannabinoid will be critical to elucidate the etiology of fetal outcome studies.