Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder experienced by a subgroup of individuals following a life-threatening trauma. Several US states have passed laws permitting the medical use of marijuana (MMJ) by individuals with PTSD, despite very little scientific indication on the appropriateness of marijuana as a therapy for PTSD. This prospective pilot study of adults with confirmed PTSD in Florida (FL) investigated whether PTSD symptoms, sleep quality, affect, and general physical and mental health/well-being improved post-initiation of MMJ treatment.
The present study sought to determine the effects of cannabinol (CBN) alone and in combination with cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep quality. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted between May and November 2022. Participants were randomized to receive either (a) placebo, (b) 20 mg CBN, (c) 20 mg CBN + 10 mg CBD, (d) 20 mg CBN + 20 mg CBD, or (e) 20 mg CBN + 100 mg CBD for seven consecutive nights. Participants were 18–55 years of age who self-rated sleep quality as “very poor” or “poor.” The primary endpoint was sleep quality, while secondary endpoints included sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, wake after sleep onset (WASO), overall sleep disturbance, and daytime fatigue
Sleep is an essential biological phase of our daily life cycle and is necessary for maintaining homeostasis, alertness, metabolism, cognition, and other key functions across the animal kingdom. Dysfunctional sleep leads to deleterious effects on health, mood, and cognition, including memory deficits and an increased risk of diabetes, stroke, and neurological disorders. Sleep is regulated by several brain neuronal circuits, neuromodulators, and neurotransmitters, where cannabinoids have been increasingly found to play a part in its modulation. Cannabinoids, a group of lipid metabolites, are regulatory molecules that bind mainly to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Much evidence supports the role of cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of sleep, where their alteration exhibits sleep-promoting effects, including an increase in non-rapid-eye movement sleep and a reduction in sleep latency. However, the pharmacological alteration of CB1 receptors is associated with adverse psychotropic effects, which are not exhibited in CB2 receptor alteration. Hence, selective alteration of CB2 receptors is also of clinical importance, where it could potentially be used in treating sleep disorders. Thus, it is crucial to understand the neurobiological basis of cannabinoids in sleep physiology. In this review article, the alteration of the endocannabinoid system by various cannabinoids and their respective effects on the sleep-wake cycle are discussed based on recent findings. The mechanisms of the cannabinoid receptors on sleep and wakefulness are also explored for their clinical implications and potential therapeutic use on sleep disorders.
Cannabis is increasingly used to self-treat anxiety and related sleep problems, without clear evidence of either supporting or refuting its anxiolytic or sleep aid effects. In addition, different forms of cannabis and primary cannabinoids ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have differing pharmacological effects.Cannabis is increasingly used to self-treat anxiety and related sleep problems, without clear evidence of either supporting or refuting its anxiolytic or sleep aid effects. In addition, different forms of cannabis and primary cannabinoids ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have differing pharmacological effects.Thirty days of daily data on sleep quality and cannabis use were collected in individuals who use cannabis for mild-to-moderate anxiety (n = 347; 36% male, 64% female; mean age = 33 years). Participants self-reported both the form (flower or edible) and the ratio of THC to CBD in the cannabis used during the observation period.
Little is known about cannabis use for insomnia in individuals with depression, anxiety, and comorbid depression and anxiety. To develop a better understanding of distinct profiles of cannabis use for insomnia management, a retrospective cohort study was conducted on a large naturalistic sample.
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two-weeks of nightly sublingual cannabinoid extract (ZTL-101) in treating chronic insomnia (symptoms ≥three months).
Authors: Kevin H Yang, Christopher N Kaufmann, Reva Nafsu, Ella T Lifset, Khai Nguyen, Michelle Sexton, Benjamin H Han, Arum Kim, Alison A Moore Published in Journal of the American…
Journal of Palliative Medicine, 6 August 2019
Objectives: To determine the relative contributions of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) to patients’ self-ratings of efficacy for common palliative care symptoms. Design: This is an electronic record-based retrospective cohort study. Model development used logi…
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1 August 2015
PURPOSE: Published evidence regarding the use of cannabis and cannabis derivatives by military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reviewed. SUMMARY: When inhaled or delivered orally or transdermally, cannabinoids (the psychoactive components of unrefined mar…
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, November 2012
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with chronic symptoms, including muscle stiffness, spasms, pain and insomnia. Here we report the results of the Multiple Sclerosis and Extract of Cannabis (MUSEC) study that aimed to substantiate the patient based findings of pr…
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, August-September 1981
Clinical trials with cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy volunteers, isomniacs, and epileptic patients conducted in the authors’ laboratory from 1972 up to the present are reviewed. Acute doses of cannabidiol ranging from 10 to 600 mg and chronic administration of 10 mg for 20 days o…