Shamema Nasrin, Shelby Coates, Keti Bardhi, Christy Watson, Joshua E. Muscat, and Philip Lazarus
January 10, 2023
Cannabis-based products have experienced notable increases in co-usage alongside tobacco products. Several cannabinoids exhibit inhibition of a number of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, but few studies have examined their inhibition of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. The goal of the present study was to examine potential drug–drug interactions occurring in the nicotine metabolism pathway perpetrated by cannabidiol (CBD) and its active metabolite, 7-hydroxy-CBD (7-OH-CBD). The inhibitory effects of CBD and 7-OH-CBD were tested in microsomes from HEK293 cells overexpressing individual metabolizing enzymes and from human liver tissue. Assays with overexpressing microsomes demonstrated that CBD and 7-OH-CBD inhibited CYP-mediated nicotine metabolism. Binding-corrected IC50,u values for CBD inhibition of nicotine metabolism to cotinine and nornicotine, and cotinine metabolism to trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (3HC), were 0.27 ± 0.060, 0.23 ± 0.14, and 0.21 ± 0.14 μM, respectively, for CYP2A6; and 0.26 ± 0.17 and 0.029 ± 0.0050 μM for cotinine and nornicotine formation, respectively, for CYP2B6. 7-OH-CBD IC50,u values were 0.45 ± 0.18, 0.16 ± 0.08, and 0.78 ± 0.23 μM for cotinine, nornicotine, and 3HC formation, respectively, for CYP2A6, and 1.2 ± 0.44 and 0.11 ± 0.030 μM for cotinine and nornicotine formation, respectively, for CYP2B6. Similar IC50,u values were observed in HLM. Inhibition (IC50,u = 0.37 ± 0.06 μM) of 3HC to 3HC-glucuronide formation by UGT1A9 was demonstrated by CBD. Significant inhibition of nicotine metabolism pathways by CBD and 7-OH-CBD suggests that cannabinoids may inhibit nicotine metabolism, potentially impacting tobacco addiction and cessation.
Nasrin, S., Coates, S., Bardhi, K., Watson, C., Muscat, J. E., & Lazarus, P. (2023). Inhibition of Nicotine Metabolism by Cannabidiol (CBD) and 7-Hydroxycannabidiol (7-OH-CBD). Chemical Research in Toxicology.