Cannabidiol Inhibits the Proliferation and Invasiveness of Prostate Cancer Cells

Prostate cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in men, responsible for over 375,000 deaths in 2020. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to improve outcomes. Cannabinoids, chemical components of the cannabis plant, are a possible solution. Preclinical evidence demonstrates that cannabinoids can modulate several cancer hallmarks of many tumor types. However, the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in prostate cancer has not yet been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative and anti-invasive properties of cannabidiol (CBD) in prostate cancer cells in vitro. CBD inhibited cell viability and proliferation, accompanied by reduced expression of key cell cycle proteins, specifically cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4, and CDK1, and inhibition of AKT phosphorylation. The effects of CBD on cell viability were not blocked by cannabinoid receptor antagonists, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel blocker, or an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55, suggesting that CBD acts independently of these targets in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, CBD reduced the invasiveness of highly metastatic PC-3 cells and increased protein expression of E-cadherin. The ability of CBD to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness suggests that CBD may have potential as a future chemotherapeutic agent.

Inhibition of Nicotine Metabolism by Cannabidiol (CBD) and 7-Hydroxycannabidiol (7-OH-CBD)

Cannabis-based products have experienced notable increases in co-usage alongside tobacco products. Several cannabinoids exhibit inhibition of a number of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, but few studies have examined their inhibition of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. The goal of the present study was to examine potential drug–drug interactions occurring in the nicotine metabolism pathway perpetrated by cannabidiol (CBD) and its active metabolite, 7-hydroxy-CBD (7-OH-CBD). The inhibitory effects of CBD and 7-OH-CBD were tested in microsomes from HEK293 cells overexpressing individual metabolizing enzymes and from human liver tissue. Assays with overexpressing microsomes demonstrated that CBD and 7-OH-CBD inhibited CYP-mediated nicotine metabolism.

Vaping Induced Cannabidiol (CBD) Oxidation Product CBD Quinone Forms Protein Adducts with KEAP1 and Activates KEAP1-Nrf2 Genes

Cannabidiol (CBD) vaping products have become widely available in the U.S. since their legalization in 2018. However, little is known about their respiratory health effects. Here we show that aerosolization of commercial CBD vaping products generates a reactive CBD quinone (CBDQ) which forms adducts with protein cysteine residues. Using click chemistry and a novel in vitro vaping product exposure system (VaPES), we further demonstrate that CBDQ forms adducts with human bronchial epithelial cell proteins including Keap1 and activates KEAP1-Nrf2 stress response pathway genes. These results suggest that vaping CBD alters protein function and induces cellular stress pathways in the lung.

Cannabinoids Block Cellular Entry of SARS-CoV-2 and the Emerging Variants

As a complement to vaccines, small-molecule therapeutic agents are needed to treat or prevent infections by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, which cause COVID-19. Affinity selection–mass spectrometry was used for the discovery of botanical ligands to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Cannabinoid acids from hemp (Cannabis sativa) were found to be allosteric as well as orthosteric ligands with micromolar affinity for the spike protein.