Cancer is a complex family of diseases affecting millions of people worldwide. Gliomas are primary brain tumors that account for ~80% of all malignant brain tumors. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, invasive, and lethal subtype of glioma. Therapy resistance and intra-GBM tumoral heterogeneity are promoted by subpopulations of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Cannabis sativa produces hundreds of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, terpenes, and phytocannabinoids. Around 160 phytocannabinoids have been identified in C. sativa. Cannabis is commonly used to treat various medical conditions, and it is used in the palliative care of cancer patients. The anti-cancer properties of cannabis compounds include cytotoxic, anti-proliferative, and anti-migratory activities on cancer cells and cancer stem cells. The endocannabinoids system is widely distributed in the body, and its dysregulation is associated with different diseases, including various types of cancer. Anti-cancer activities of phytocannabinoids are mediated in glioma cells, at least partially, by the endocannabinoid receptors, triggering various cellular signaling pathways, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. Specific combinations of multiple phytocannabinoids act synergistically against cancer cells and may trigger different anti-cancer signaling pathways. Yet, due to scarcity of clinical trials, there remains no solid basis for the anti-cancer therapeutic potential of cannabis compounds.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a relatively rare type of brain tumour with an incidence rate around 6 per 100,000. Even with the widely practiced combination of radiotherapy with adjuvant temozolomide, the median overall survival remains low with just 13.5 to 16 months after diagnosis. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the survival of a cohort of 15 consecutive, unselected patients with histopathologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who received CBD (400 to 600 mg orally per day) in addition to standard therapy (maximum resection of the tumour followed by radio- chemotherapy). Results: Of 15 patients, seven (46.7%) are now living for at least 24 months, and four (26.7%) for at least 36 months. This is more than twice as long as has been previously reported in the literature. The mean overall survival is currently 24.2 months (median 21 months). Conclusion: CBD is a well supported co-medication and seems to prolong the survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme.
Anticancer Research, October 2019
Grade IV glioblastoma multiforme is a deadly disease, with a median survival of around 14 to 16 months. Maximal resection followed by adjuvant radiochemotherapy has been the mainstay of treatment since many years, although survival is only extended by a few months. In recent y…
Phytotherapy Research, November 2018
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor, which causes the highest number of deaths worldwide. It is a highly vascularized tumor, infiltrative, and its tumorigenic capacity is exacerbated. All these hallmarks are therapeutic targets in GBM treatment, in…
Clinicaltrials.gov, 11 August 2016
An open-label phase to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events in recurrent glioblastoma patients receiving Sativex in combination with dose-intense Temozolomide (Part A). A randomisation phase to assess the safety of Sativex compared with placebo (Part B). Patient…
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Membrane Transport and Signaling, 21 January 2014
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of primary brain tumor and is diagnosed in approximately 15,000 people each year in the United States alone. No cure for this type of cancer exists, and the current standard of care treatments provide little benefit and are…
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, January 2011
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is highly resistant to current anticancer treatments, which makes it crucial to find new therapeutic strategies aimed at improving the poor prognosis of patients suffering from this disease. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingred…
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, January 2010
The cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) and cannabinoid 2 (CB(2)) receptor agonist Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been shown to be a broad-range inhibitor of cancer in culture and in vivo, and is currently being used in a clinical trial for the treatment of glioblastoma. It has bee…
British Journal of Cancer, 17 July 2006
Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids inhibit tumour growth and angiogenesis in animal models, so their potential application as antitumoral drugs has been suggested. However, the antitumoral effect of cannabinoids has never been tested in humans. Here we…