Posts

Mutual Links between the Endocannabinoidome and the Gut Microbiome, with Special Reference to Companion Animals: A Nutritional Viewpoint

Dysbiosis, which is an imbalance of gut microbial composition and function, can be caused by several external as well as internal factors, contributing to the onset of human and animal disorders, not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, the mechanisms leading to disease development involve a crucial interaction between the gut microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host. The expanded endocannabinoid system, also known as the “endocannabinoidome”, includes endocannabinoids (e.g., anandamide) and endocannabinoid-like mediators (e.g., palmitoylethanolamide), their receptors and metabolic enzymes. Dysregulation of this newly recognized endogenous system is also involved in several diseases. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a link between the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome exists. Here, we review some of the latest discoveries related to the functional link between these two complex systems and the disorders emerging from the malfunctioning of such a mutual interaction: for example, idiopathic inflammation, chronic enteropathies, metabolic disease and certain neuroinflammatory disorders. It is expected that in the near future new nutritional tools will emerge based on the expanding knowledge in this cutting-edge field.

Role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of endometriosis and therapeutic implications

Endometriosis patients experience debilitating chronic pain, and the first-line treatment is ineffective at managing symptoms. Although surgical removal of the lesions provides temporary relief, more than 50% of the patients experience disease recurrence. Despite being a leading cause of hysterectomy, endometriosis lacks satisfactory treatments and a cure. Another challenge is the poor understanding of disease pathophysiology which adds to the delays in diagnosis and overall compromised quality of life. Endometriosis patients are in dire need of an effective therapeutic strategy that is both economical and effective in managing symptoms, while fertility is unaffected. Endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids possess anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-proliferative properties that may prove beneficial for endometriosis management, given that inflammation, vascularization, and pain are hallmark features of endometriosis.

Minor Cannabinoids: Biosynthesis, Molecular Pharmacology and Potential Therapeutic Uses

The medicinal use of Cannabis sativa L. can be traced back thousands of years to ancient China and Egypt. While marijuana has recently shown promise in managing chronic pain and nausea, scientific investigation of cannabis has been restricted due its classification as a schedule 1 controlled substance.

The Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Coagulopathies

The legal status of Cannabis is changing, fueling an increasing diversity of Cannabis-derived products. Because Cannabis contains dozens of chemical compounds with potential psychoactive or medicinal effects, understanding this phytochemical diversity is crucial. The legal Cannabis industry heavily markets products to consumers based on widely used labeling systems purported to predict the effects of different “strains.” We analyzed the cannabinoid and terpene content of commercial Cannabis samples across six US states, finding distinct chemical phenotypes (chemotypes) which are reliably present. By comparing the observed phytochemical diversity to the commercial labels commonly attached to Cannabis-derived product samples, we show that commercial labels do not consistently align with the observed chemical diversity.

Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Dermatologic Conditions

In recent years, cannabinoid products have gained popularity among the general public. The anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids have piqued the interest of researchers and clinicians, as they represent promising avenues for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory skin disorders that may be refractory to conventional therapy. The objective of this study was to review the existing literature regarding cannabinoids for dermatologic conditions.

Endocannabinoid Levels in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Correlate With Clinical Parameters and Are Affected by Cannabis Consumption

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal disorders. The endocannabinoid system may have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. We aimed to assess whether cannabis treatment influences endocannabinoids (eCBs) level and clinical symptoms of IBD patients.
Many cannabinoids display promising non-hallucinogenic bioactivities that are determined by the variable nature of the side chain and prenyl group defined by the enzymes involved in their synthesis.

Epigenetic Regulation of Cannabinoid-Mediated Attenuation of Inflammation and Its Impact on the Use of Cannabinoids to Treat Autoimmune Diseases

Chronic inflammation is considered to be a silent killer because it is the underlying cause of a wide range of clinical disorders, from cardiovascular to neurological diseases, and from cancer to obesity. In addition, there are over 80 different types of debilitating autoimmune diseases for which there are no cure. Currently, the drugs that are available to suppress chronic inflammation are either ineffective or overtly suppress the inflammation, thereby causing increased susceptibility to infections and cancer. Thus, the development of a new class of drugs that can suppress chronic inflammation is imperative. Cannabinoids are a group of compounds produced in the body (endocannabinoids) or found in cannabis (phytocannabinoids) that act through cannabinoid receptors and various other receptors expressed widely in the brain and immune system.

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabinoids in the Immunomodulation of Prevalent Autoimmune Diseases

Cannabinoids such as ▵-9-THC and CBD can downregulate the immune response by modulating the endocannabinoid system. This modulation is relevant for the treatment of prevalent autoimmune diseases (ADs), such as multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These conditions require new therapeutic options with fewer side effects for the control of the autoimmune response. Objective: to conduct a literature review of preclinical scientific evidence that supports further clinical investigations for the use of cannabinoids (natural or synthetic) as potential immunomodulators of the immune response in ADs.

Anandamide alters the membrane properties, halts the cell division and prevents drug efflux in multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Antibiotic resistance is a serious public health problem throughout the world. Overcoming methicillin and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/MDRSA) infections has become a challenge and there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches. We have previously demonstrated that the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA) can sensitize MRSA to antibiotics. Here we have studied the mechanism of action using a MDRSA clinical isolate that are sensitized by AEA to methicillin and norfloxacin. We found that AEA treatment halts the growth of both antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus

The Chemistry of Cannabis and Cannabinoids

The science of cannabis and cannabinoids encompasses a wide variety of scientific disciplines and can appear daunting to newcomers to the field. The encroachment of folklore and ‘cannabis culture’ into scientific discussions can cloud the situation further. This Primer Review is designed to give a succinct overview of the chemistry of cannabis and cannabinoids.

The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities

The newly discovered endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising the endogenous lipid mediators endocanna- binoids present in virtually all tissues, their G-protein- coupled cannabinoid receptors, biosynthetic pathways and metabolizing enzymes) has been implicated in multiple regulatory functions both in health and disease.

FURTHER EVIDENCE OF ANXIETY- AND DEPRESSION-LIKE BEHAVIOR FOR TOTAL GENETIC ABLATION OF CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 1

Authors: Delia Soriano, Alicia Brusco, Laura Caltana Published in Behavioural Brain Research November 2020 Abstract Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) is the most abundant cannabinoid receptor in central nervous system….