Relapse rates in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) remain high, warranting exploration of further treatments. Cannabinoid agonists are of interest as they have shown successful outcomes in the treatment of associated conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. This scoping review explores the endocannabinoid system (ECS), benefits/harms/null effects of cannabinoid treatment, and harms of cannabis use in AN. PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Web of Science were searched for studies published between 2010 and August 2023, with human participants that explored the ECS, cannabinoid treatment, or cannabis use, and included 1 or more keywords for both cannabis and AN in the title and or abstract. Reports describing secondary anorexia, reports not available in English, grey literature, reports combining data from AN with other conditions, and reports only reporting the prevalence of cannabis abuse/dependence were excluded. Data were extracted from 17 reports (n = 15 studies). For the ECS, outcomes included genetics such as allele expression related to the ECS, cannabinoid receptor availability, and circulating levels of endocannabinoids. For benefits/harms/null effects of cannabinoid treatment, outcomes included changes in weight, eating disorder (ED) symptoms, physical activity (PA), and hormones. For harms of cannabis use, outcomes included genetics related to cannabis use disorder and associations between cannabis use and ED symptoms.
In the past decade, significant advancements have been made in understanding the brain regions and neuronal circuits regulating neurological behaviors. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which is ubiquitously distributed in the brain and extensively involved in synaptic modulation, has been believed to play potential roles in neuronal circuit processes and related disorders. Although eCB-based pharmacological studies have made some clinical achievements, they still often encounter conflicting reports or undesired effects due to global manipulation of manifold brain regions and neuronal circuits, which impede the therapeutic application of eCB-based medications. In this review, we are devoted to discussing the versatile forms of eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity and dissecting currently well-studied specific cannabinoid circuits involved in behavioral domains which are closely linked to the organism’s survival and life quality, such as pain perception and stress-related emotion disorders. By gaining new insights into selective cannabinoid control in circuits, we can potentially mitigate the drawbacks of traditional pharmacology and facilitate the development of precision medicine with novel therapeutic strategies and drug discoveries.
Increasing evidence supports the therapeutic potential of rare cannabis-derived phytocannabinoids (pCBs) in skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pruritus, and acne. However, the molecular mechanisms of the biological action of these pCBs remain poorly investigated. In this study, an experimental model of inflamed human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) was set up by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in order to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the rare pCBs cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA). To this aim, pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-12, IL-31, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-β) and anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels were measured through ELISA quantification. In addition, IL-12 and IL-31 levels were measured after treatment of HaCaT cells with THCV and CBGA in the presence of selected modulators of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling.
Dysbiosis, which is an imbalance of gut microbial composition and function, can be caused by several external as well as internal factors, contributing to the onset of human and animal disorders, not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, the mechanisms leading to disease development involve a crucial interaction between the gut microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host. The expanded endocannabinoid system, also known as the “endocannabinoidome”, includes endocannabinoids (e.g., anandamide) and endocannabinoid-like mediators (e.g., palmitoylethanolamide), their receptors and metabolic enzymes. Dysregulation of this newly recognized endogenous system is also involved in several diseases. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a link between the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome exists. Here, we review some of the latest discoveries related to the functional link between these two complex systems and the disorders emerging from the malfunctioning of such a mutual interaction: for example, idiopathic inflammation, chronic enteropathies, metabolic disease and certain neuroinflammatory disorders. It is expected that in the near future new nutritional tools will emerge based on the expanding knowledge in this cutting-edge field.
Endometriosis patients experience debilitating chronic pain, and the first-line treatment is ineffective at managing symptoms. Although surgical removal of the lesions provides temporary relief, more than 50% of the patients experience disease recurrence. Despite being a leading cause of hysterectomy, endometriosis lacks satisfactory treatments and a cure. Another challenge is the poor understanding of disease pathophysiology which adds to the delays in diagnosis and overall compromised quality of life. Endometriosis patients are in dire need of an effective therapeutic strategy that is both economical and effective in managing symptoms, while fertility is unaffected. Endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids possess anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-proliferative properties that may prove beneficial for endometriosis management, given that inflammation, vascularization, and pain are hallmark features of endometriosis.
The medicinal use of Cannabis sativa L. can be traced back thousands of years to ancient China and Egypt. While marijuana has recently shown promise in managing chronic pain and nausea, scientific investigation of cannabis has been restricted due its classification as a schedule 1 controlled substance.
The legal status of Cannabis is changing, fueling an increasing diversity of Cannabis-derived products. Because Cannabis contains dozens of chemical compounds with potential psychoactive or medicinal effects, understanding this phytochemical diversity is crucial. The legal Cannabis industry heavily markets products to consumers based on widely used labeling systems purported to predict the effects of different “strains.” We analyzed the cannabinoid and terpene content of commercial Cannabis samples across six US states, finding distinct chemical phenotypes (chemotypes) which are reliably present. By comparing the observed phytochemical diversity to the commercial labels commonly attached to Cannabis-derived product samples, we show that commercial labels do not consistently align with the observed chemical diversity.
In recent years, cannabinoid products have gained popularity among the general public. The anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids have piqued the interest of researchers and clinicians, as they represent promising avenues for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory skin disorders that may be refractory to conventional therapy. The objective of this study was to review the existing literature regarding cannabinoids for dermatologic conditions.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal disorders. The endocannabinoid system may have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. We aimed to assess whether cannabis treatment influences endocannabinoids (eCBs) level and clinical symptoms of IBD patients.
Many cannabinoids display promising non-hallucinogenic bioactivities that are determined by the variable nature of the side chain and prenyl group defined by the enzymes involved in their synthesis.
Chronic inflammation is considered to be a silent killer because it is the underlying cause of a wide range of clinical disorders, from cardiovascular to neurological diseases, and from cancer to obesity. In addition, there are over 80 different types of debilitating autoimmune diseases for which there are no cure. Currently, the drugs that are available to suppress chronic inflammation are either ineffective or overtly suppress the inflammation, thereby causing increased susceptibility to infections and cancer. Thus, the development of a new class of drugs that can suppress chronic inflammation is imperative. Cannabinoids are a group of compounds produced in the body (endocannabinoids) or found in cannabis (phytocannabinoids) that act through cannabinoid receptors and various other receptors expressed widely in the brain and immune system.
Cannabinoids such as ▵-9-THC and CBD can downregulate the immune response by modulating the endocannabinoid system. This modulation is relevant for the treatment of prevalent autoimmune diseases (ADs), such as multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These conditions require new therapeutic options with fewer side effects for the control of the autoimmune response. Objective: to conduct a literature review of preclinical scientific evidence that supports further clinical investigations for the use of cannabinoids (natural or synthetic) as potential immunomodulators of the immune response in ADs.
Antibiotic resistance is a serious public health problem throughout the world. Overcoming methicillin and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/MDRSA) infections has become a challenge and there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches. We have previously demonstrated that the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA) can sensitize MRSA to antibiotics. Here we have studied the mechanism of action using a MDRSA clinical isolate that are sensitized by AEA to methicillin and norfloxacin. We found that AEA treatment halts the growth of both antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus