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Phytocannabinoids: Origins and Biosynthesis

hytocannabinoids are bioactive terpenoids that were thought to be exclusive to Cannabis sativa, but have now also been discovered in Rhododendron species, some legumes, the liverwort genus Radula, and some fungi.

Many cannabinoids display promising non-hallucinogenic bioactivities that are determined by the variable nature of the side chain and prenyl group defined by the enzymes involved in their synthesis.

Opposite Roles for Cannabidiol and δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Psychotomimetic Effects of Cannabis Extracts: A Naturalistic Controlled Study

Although δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main cannabinoid from the cannabis plant, is responsible for the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant cannabinoid in the cannabis plant, does not show any psychotomimetic effect. Cannabidiol has even been proposed to be antipsychotic and to counteract some of the psychotomimetic effects of THC. The aim of this study was to test the potential antipsychotomimetic effects of CBD.

The Effectiveness of Cannabis and Cannabis Derivatives in Treating Lower Back Pain in the Aged Population: A Systematic Review

Cannabis is increasingly used in the management of pain, though minimal research exists to sup- port its use since approval. Reduction in stigma has led to a growing interest in pharmaceutical cannabinoids as a pos- sible treatment for lower back pain (LBP). The objective of this review was to assess the role and efficacy of cannabis and its derivatives in the management of LBP and compile global data related to the role of cannabis in the manage- ment of LBP in an aging population

Preoperative administration of cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery in Colombia: 16 Cases

. The objective of this study is retrospectively review the effect of a single dose administration of two pharmaceutical grade CBD oils on basic cardiorespiratory parameters and anesthetic recovery of dogs undergoing elective surgery. Complete medical and anesthesia records of healthy dogs of the spay/neuter program of Corporaciòn Universitaria Santa Rosa de Cabal UNISARC whose owners approved a preoperative single dose of CBD were included for analysis. Dogs were considered clinically healthy based on physical examination, complete hemogram and serum creatinine and ALT concentration

The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids

There is increasing interest in the use of cannabinoids for disease and symptom management, but limited information available regarding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to guide prescribers. Cannabis medicines contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including the cannabinoids delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is psychoactive, and the nonpsychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis use is associated with both pathological and behavioural toxicity and, accordingly, is contraindicated in the context of significant psychiatric, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic illness.

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabinoids in the Immunomodulation of Prevalent Autoimmune Diseases

Cannabinoids such as ▵-9-THC and CBD can downregulate the immune response by modulating the endocannabinoid system. This modulation is relevant for the treatment of prevalent autoimmune diseases (ADs), such as multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These conditions require new therapeutic options with fewer side effects for the control of the autoimmune response. Objective: to conduct a literature review of preclinical scientific evidence that supports further clinical investigations for the use of cannabinoids (natural or synthetic) as potential immunomodulators of the immune response in ADs.

In vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of minor cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa

Authors: Ayat Zagzoog, Kawthar A. Mohamed, Hye Ji J. Kim, Eunhyun D. Kim, Connor S. Frank, Tallan Black, Pramodkumar D. Jadhav, Larry A. Holbrook & Robert B. Laprairie Published in Scientific Reports November 2020 Abstract The Cannabis sativa plant contains more than 120 cannabinoids. With the exceptions of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), comparatively little…

Signaling Through the Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor Regulates the Severity of Acute and Chronic Graft versus Host Disease

Authors: Cheng Yin Yuan, Vivian Zhou, Garrett Sauber, Todd M Stollenwerk, Richard Komorowski, Alicia López, Rosa Maria Tolon, Julian Romero, Cecilia J Hillard, William R Drobyski Published in Blood  October 2020 Abstract Graft versus host disease (GVHD) pathophysiology is a complex interplay between cells that comprise the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system….

Cannabidiol (CBD) as a Promising Anti-Cancer Drug

Authors: Emily S. Seltzer, Andrea K. Watters, Danny MacKenzie, Jr., Lauren M. Granat and Dong Zhang Published in Cancers  October 2020 Abstract Recently, cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have been the subject of intensive research and heavy scrutiny. Cannabinoids encompass a wide array of organic molecules, including those that are physiologically produced…

Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Prevents Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer through Myeloid Cell De-activation Upstream of IL-22 Production

Authors: William Becker, Haider Rasheed Alrafa,Kiesha Wilson, Kathryn Miranda, Courtney Culpepper, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Guoshuai Cai, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash S. Nagarkatti Published in Iscience August 2020 Abstract Summary Intestinal disequilibrium leads to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and chronic inflammation predisposes to oncogenesis. Antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages can tip the equilibrium toward tolerance or pathology….

Delegitimizing Cannabis Because of Its Recreational Use is the Real Lie

Sherry Yafai, MD encourages the need for healthcare professionals to shift their perspective on cannabis in her column for Emergency Medicine News. “Delegitimizing medications based simply on their potential for recreational use or abuse is a dangerous and uninformed approach for physicians.”

Understanding Cannabis-Based Therapeutics in Sports Medicine

SCC Member Gretchen E. Maurer, DO, MS and colleagues examine the current research potential for cannabis in sports medicine.