Cannabinoid products have been studied in the treatment of various dermatologic conditions. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE for articles published before 1 February 2023 that described the use of cannabinoids in the management of hair, scalp, and skin conditions, identifying 18 original articles that encompassed 1090 patients who used various forms of cannabinoid products. Where specified, topical cannabidiol (CBD) was the most commonly utilized treatment (64.3%, 173/269), followed by oral dronabinol (14.4%, 39/269), oral lenabasum (14.1%, 38/269), and oral hempseed oil (5.9%, 16/269). Using the GRADE approach, we found moderate-quality evidence supporting the efficacy of cannabinoid products in managing atopic dermatitis, dermatomyositis, psoriasis, and systemic sclerosis and moderate-quality evidence supporting a lack of efficacy in treating trichotillomania. There was low to very low quality evidence supporting the efficacy of cannabinoid products in managing alopecia areata, epidermolysis bullosa, hyperhidrosis, seborrheic dermatitis, and pruritus. Our findings suggest that cannabinoids may have efficacy in managing symptoms of certain inflammatory dermatologic conditions. However, the evidence is still limited, and there is no standardized dosage or route of administration for these products. Large randomized controlled trials and further studies with standardized treatment regimens are necessary to better understand the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids.
In spite of the huge advancements in both diagnosis and interventions, hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) remains a major hurdle in prostate cancer (PCa). Metabolic reprogramming plays a key role in PCa oncogenesis and resistance. However, the dynamics between metabolism and oncogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that two multi-target natural products, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG), suppress HRPC development in the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model by reprogramming metabolic and oncogenic signaling. Mechanistically, CBD increases glycolytic capacity and inhibits oxidative phosphorylation in enzalutamide-resistant HRPC cells. This action of CBD originates from its effect on metabolic plasticity via modulation of VDAC1 and hexokinase II (HKII) coupling on the outer mitochondrial membrane, which leads to strong shifts of mitochondrial functions and oncogenic signaling pathways. The effect of CBG on enzalutamide-resistant HRPC cells was less pronounced than CBD and only partially attributable to its action on mitochondria. However, when optimally combined, these two cannabinoids exhibited strong anti-tumor effects in TRAMP mice, even when these had become refractory to enzalutamide, thus pointing to their therapeutical potential against PCa.
Cannabis is increasingly used to self-treat anxiety and related sleep problems, without clear evidence of either supporting or refuting its anxiolytic or sleep aid effects. In addition, different forms of cannabis and primary cannabinoids ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have differing pharmacological effects.Cannabis is increasingly used to self-treat anxiety and related sleep problems, without clear evidence of either supporting or refuting its anxiolytic or sleep aid effects. In addition, different forms of cannabis and primary cannabinoids ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have differing pharmacological effects.Thirty days of daily data on sleep quality and cannabis use were collected in individuals who use cannabis for mild-to-moderate anxiety (n = 347; 36% male, 64% female; mean age = 33 years). Participants self-reported both the form (flower or edible) and the ratio of THC to CBD in the cannabis used during the observation period.
The current standard-of-care treatment regimens for cancer frequently have serious and irreversible adverse effects. Ideally, therapeutic modalities should help control symptoms and improve the patient’s quality of life while causing minimal or no toxic effects. In this regard, it is worth examining cannabidiol (CBD) for its potential anticancer properties. CBD may possess antitumor activity through several mechanisms, including regulating reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and immune modulation. In addition, pre-clinical studies indicate that CBD is a potential modulator of growth factors and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the effects of CBD as a non-toxic adjuvant in cancer care.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main pharmacologically active phytocannabinoid. CBD exerts an analgesic effect in several pain models, does not have side effects and has low toxicity. The data about CBD mechanisms of action in pain and its therapeutic potential in this area are limited. Here, we tested CBD effects in animal models specific for migraine. We assayed CBD distribution in plasma and in cranial areas related to migraine pain in male Sprague Dawley rats treated chronically (5 days). Successively, we tested CBD activity on the behavioral and biochemical effects induced in the acute and the chronic migraine animal models by nitroglycerin (NTG) administration. In the acute migraine model, rats received CBD (15 mg or 30 mg/kg, i.p) 3 h after NTG (10 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle injection. In the chronic migraine model, rats were treated with CBD and NTG every other day over nine days with the following doses: CBD 30 mg/kg i.p., NTG 10 mg/kg i.p.
Abnormal energy metabolism, as one of the important hallmarks of cancer, was induced by multiple carcinogenic factors and tumor-specific microenvironments. It comprises aerobic glycolysis, de novo lipid biosynthesis, and glutamine-dependent anaplerosis. Considering that metabolic reprogramming provides various nutrients for tumor survival and development, it has been considered a potential target for cancer therapy. Cannabinoids have been shown to exhibit a variety of anticancer activities by unclear mechanisms. This paper first reviews the recent progress of related signaling pathways (reactive oxygen species (ROS), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), and p53) mediating the reprogramming of cancer metabolism (including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism). Then we comprehensively explore the latest discoveries and possible mechanisms of the anticancer effects of cannabinoids through the regulation of the above-mentioned related signaling pathways, to provide new targets and insights for cancer prevention and treatment.
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a prolonged refractory status epilepticus (SE) that develops among healthy individuals after a febrile infection.
FIRES treatment is challenging due to its poor response to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) and anesthetic drugs. The use of cannabidiol (CBD) as an adjunctive treatment has been suggested, albeit data about its role in the acute phase is lacking. This report describes the use of purified CBD in the acute phase of two pediatric cases of FIRES and their long-term outcome.
Both children were treated with several ASMs, immunomodulators, anesthetics, and non-pharmacological treatment (ketogenic diet). CBD was administered, as an adjunctive treatment, through nasogastric tube about 30 days after onset. SE resolved within three days of reaching the target dose and both were seizure-free for one year after.
Although it is difficult to define the extent to which each previous therapy contributed to recovery, in both cases CBD therapy was a turning point, reinforcing its potential role as add-on treatment in the acute phase of FIRES.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic conditions of unknown cause or cure. Treatment seeks to reduce symptoms and induce and maintain remission. Many patients have turned to alternatives, such as cannabis, to alleviate living with IBD. This study reports the demographics, prevalence, and perception on cannabis use of patients attending an IBD clinic. Patients agreed to participate and completed an anonymous survey during their visit or online. Descriptive analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test were used. One hundred and sixty- two adults (85 males, 77 with CD) completed the survey. Sixty (37%) reported use of cannabis, of which 38 (63%) used it to relieve their IBD. A value of 77% reported low to moderate knowledge about cannabis, and 15% reported little to no knowledge. Among cannabis users, 48% had discussed use with their physician, but 88% said they would feel comfortable discussing medical cannabis for IBD. Most saw improvement of their symptoms (85.7%). A considerable number of patients with IBD use medical cannabis for their disease, unknown to their physician. The study reinforces the importance that physicians understand the role of cannabis in the treatment of IBD in order to appropriately counsel patients.
Although topical steroids constitute the first-line therapy for recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAUs), their long-term use often leads to candidiasis. Although cannabidiol (CBD) can be an alternative for pharmacologically managing RAUs due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory in vivo effects, there is a lack of clinical and safety trials concerning its use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of topical 0.1% CBD for managing RAU. A CBD patch test was performed on 100 healthy subjects. CBD was applied on the normal oral mucosa of 50 healthy subjects 3 times/day for 7 days. Oral examination, vital signs, and blood tests were performed pre- and post-CBD use. Another 69 RAU subjects randomly received one of three topical interventions: 0.1% CBD, 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide (TA), or placebo. These were applied on the ulcers 3 times/day for 7 days. The ulcer and erythematous size were measured on day 0, 2, 5, and 7. Pain ratings were recorded daily. The subjects rated their satisfaction with the intervention and completed a quality-of-life questionnaire (OHIP-14).
Melanoma is deadly, physically impairing, and has ongoing treatment deficiencies. Current treatment regimens include surgery, targeted kinase inhibitors, immunotherapy, and combined approaches. Each of these treatments face pitfalls, with diminutive five-year survival in patients with advanced metastatic invasion of lymph and secondary organ tissues. Polyphenolic compounds, including cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids; both natural and synthetic, have emerging evidence of nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmacological potential, including specific anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and palliative utility. Cannabis sativa is a wellspring of medicinal compounds whose direct and adjunctive application may offer considerable relief for melanoma suffers worldwide. This review aims to address the diverse applications of C. sativa’s biocompounds in the scope of melanoma and suggest it as a strong candidate for ongoing pharmacological evaluation.
In vitro studies have shown cannabinoids blocking SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry and affecting replication. There is a paucity of data assessing the effect of cannabis on patients hospitalized with COVID in the USA. The aim of our study was to assess mortality and complication rates in patients hospitalized with COVID stratified by cannabis use.
In spite of the huge advancements in both diagnosis and interventions, hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) remains a major hurdle in prostate cancer (PCa). Metabolic reprogramming plays a key role in PCa oncogenesis and resistance. However, the dynamics between metabolism and oncogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that two multi-target natural products, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG), suppress HRPC development in the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model by reprogramming metabolic and oncogenic signaling.