Posts

Cannabinoids Reduce Extracellular Vesicle Release from HIV-1 Infected Myeloid Cells and Inhibit Viral Transcription

Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary cannabinoids present in cannabis, are effective in reducing inflammation. Studies show that cannabis use in people living with HIV-1 is associated with lower viral load, lower circulating CD16+ monocytes and high CD4+ T-cell counts, suggesting a potentially therapeutic application. Here, HIV-1 infected U1 monocytes and primary macrophages were used to assess the effects of CBD. Post-CBD treatment, EV concentrations were analyzed using nanoparticle tracking analysis.

Endocannabinoid signaling in glioma

High-grade gliomas constitute the most frequent and aggressive form of primary brain cancer in adults. These tumors express cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as other elements of the endocannabinoid system. Accruing preclinical evidence supports that pharmacological activation of cannabinoid receptors located on glioma cells exerts overt anti-tumoral effects by modulating key intracellular signaling path- ways. The mechanism of this cannabinoid receptor-evoked anti-tumoral activity in experimental models of glioma is intricate and may involve an inhibition not only of cancer cell survival/proliferation, but also of invasiveness, angiogenesis, and the stem cell-like properties of cancer cells, thereby affecting the complex tumor microenvi- ronment. However, the precise biological role of the endocannabinoid system in the generation and progression of glioma seems very context-dependent and remains largely unknown. Increasing our basic knowledge on how (endo)cannabinoids act on glioma cells could help to optimize experimental cannabinoid-based anti-tumoral therapies, as well as the preliminary clinical testing that is currently underway.

Cannabis for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Report of 3 Cases

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral disorder that is highly prevalent in children and adults. An increasing number of patients with ADHD are self-medicating with cannabis, despite a lack of evidence on efficacy and safety. This case report describes 3 males (ages 18, 22, and 23) who have integrated cannabis into their treatment regimen with positive results. Semistructured interviews conducted with the patients describe subjective improvements in symptoms and on quality of life.

Cannabis for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Report of 3 Cases

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral disorder that is highly prevalent in children and adults. An increasing number of patients with ADHD are self-medicating with cannabis, despite a lack of evidence on efficacy and safety. This case report describes 3 males (ages 18, 22, and 23) who have integrated cannabis into their treatment regimen with positive results. Semistructured interviews conducted with the patients describe subjective improvements in symptoms and on quality of life.

Are blood and oral fluid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and metabolite concentrations related to impairment? A meta-regression analysis

Blood and oral fluid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations are often used to identify cannabis-impaired drivers. We used meta-analytic techniques to characterise the relationships between biomarkers of cannabis use, subjective intoxication, and impairment of driving and driving-related cognitive skills.

Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of cannabidiol (CBD) product use and health among people with epilepsy

Recent approval of Epidiolex® (pharmaceutical cannabidiol/CBD) for the treatment of Lennox Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome highlights a therapeutic efficacy of CBD in the treatment of epilepsy. However, a large number of patients with epilepsy elect to use alternative artisanal CBD products due to cost or access constraints. Despite widespread availability and variety of these artisanal CBD products, studies evaluating their safety or efficacy are rare, making conclusions about clinical utility uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of artisanal CBD product use with quality of life, mental health, healthcare utilization, and epilepsy-specific outcomes within a large, observational cohort of people with epilepsy.

Add-on cannabidiol in patients with Dravet syndrome: Results of a long-term open-label extension trial

Add-on cannabidiol (CBD) reduced seizures associated with Dravet syndrome (DS) in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials: GWPCARE1 Part B (NCT02091375) and GWPCARE2 (NCT02224703). Patients who completed GWPCARE1 Part A (NCT02091206) or Part B, or GWPCARE2, were enrolled in a long-term open-label extension trial, GWPCARE5 (NCT02224573). We present an interim analysis of the safety, efficacy, and patient-reported outcomes from GWPCARE5.

Cannabis in the management of PTSD: a systematic review

Existing reviews exploring cannabis effectiveness have numerous limitations including narrow search strategies. We systematically explored cannabis effects on PTSD symptoms, quality of life (QOL), and return to work (RTW). We also investigated harm outcomes such as adverse effects and dropouts due to adverse effects, inefficacy, and all-cause dropout rates.

A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a conserved physiological system emerged as a novel pharmacological target for its significant role and potential therapeutic benefits ranging from neurological diseases to cancer. Among both, CB1 and CB2R types, CB2R have received attention for its pharmacological effects as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic that can be achieved without causing psychotropic adverse effects through CB1R.

Cannabinoid Signaling in Auditory Function and Development

Here we briefly summarize cannabinoid signaling and review what has been discerned to date with regard to cannabinoid signaling in the auditory system and its roles in normal physiological function as well as pathological conditions. While much has been uncovered regarding cannabinoid signaling in the central nervous system, less attention has been paid to the auditory system specifically.

Cannabidiol Treatment Results in a Common Gene Expression Response Across Aggressive Cancer Cells from Various Origins

We previously reported that cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid with a low toxicity profile, downregulated the expression of the prometastatic gene inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1) in cancer cells, leading to inhibition of tumor progression in vivo. While CBD is broadly used, including in the self-medication of cancer patients, and CBD-based therapies are undergoing clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, its mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. Methods: In this study, using microarray analysis and Western blot analysis for validation, we attempted to identify the full spectrum of genes regulated by CBD across various aggressive cancer cell lines, including the breast, brain, head and neck, and prostate. Results: We confirmed that ID1 was a major target downregulated by CBD and also discovered that CBD inhibited FOXM1 (Forkhead box M1), a transcriptional activator involved in cell proliferation, while simultaneously upregulating GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15), a cytokine associated with tissue differentiation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, by modulating expression of shared key cancer-driving genes, CBD could represent a promising nontoxic therapeutic for treating tumors of various origins.

The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities

The newly discovered endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising the endogenous lipid mediators endocanna- binoids present in virtually all tissues, their G-protein- coupled cannabinoid receptors, biosynthetic pathways and metabolizing enzymes) has been implicated in multiple regulatory functions both in health and disease.