Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive compound derived from Cannabis Sativa, has garnered increasing attention for its diverse therapeutic potential. This comprehensive review delves into the complex pharmacokinetics of CBD, including factors such as bioavailability, distribution, safety profile, and dosage recommendations, which contribute to the compound’s pharmacological profile. CBD’s role as a pharmacological inhibitor is explored, encompassing interactions with the endocannabinoid system and ion channels. The compound’s anti-inflammatory effects, influencing the Interferon-beta and NF-κB, position it as a versatile candidate for immune system regulation and interventions in inflammatory processes. The historical context of Cannabis Sativa’s use for recreational and medicinal purposes adds depth to the discussion, emphasizing CBD’s emergence as a pivotal phytocannabinoid. As research continues, CBD’s integration into clinical practice holds promise for revolutionizing treatment approaches and enhancing patient outcomes. The evolution in CBD research encourages ongoing exploration, offering the prospect of unlocking new therapeutic utility.
The literature provides scientific evidence for the beneficial effects of cannabidiol (CBD), and these effects extend beyond epilepsy treatment (e.g., Lennox–Gastaut and Dravet syndromes), notably the influence on oxidative status, neurodegeneration, cellular protection, cognitive function, and physical performance. However, products containing CBD are not allowed to be marketed everywhere in the world, which may ultimately have a negative effect on health as a result of the uncontrolled CBD market. After the isolation of CBD follows the discovery of CB1 and CB2 receptors and the main enzymatic components (diacylglycerol lipase (DAG lipase), monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL), fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)).
Cannabis sativa products have historically been used for healing purposes; now their biological properties are supported with scientific evidence, but modern research has not yet fully developed its therapeutic potential. This study focuses on the cultivar of C. sativa called strawberry to understand the biological and medical potentials of hydroalcoholic extracts from two different parts of the plant: leaves and inflorescences. Two biological assets were investigated including antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.
Cannabis sativa has chemically active compounds called cannabinoids, where Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are the major ones responsible for the various pharmacological effects. The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous system considered a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator. It is made up of type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors. CBD, in turn, has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, and regulates the effects arising from THC as a CB1 partial agonist, which are tachycardia, anxiety, and sedation. It also acts as a CB2 inverse agonist, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, its anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, antiemetic, anxiolytic, anticancer, and antioxidant effects seem to be linked to other discovered receptors such as GRP55, 5TH1a, TRPV I, TRPV II and the regulation of the intracellular concentration of Ca2+. Regarding oxidative stress, O2- can act as an oxidizing agent, being reduced to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or as a reducing agent, donating its extra electron to NO to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-). The ONOO- formed is capable of oxidizing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, causing several cell damages. In this sense, CBD can prevent cardiac oxidative damage in many conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, or even through the cardiotoxic effects induced by chemotherapy, which makes it a potential target for future clinical use to minimize the deleterious effects of many pathophysiologies.