Heterogeneity in hormone-dependent breast cancer and therapy: Steroid hormones, HER2, melanoma antigens, and cannabinoid receptors

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. The prognosis of the disease and patients’ response to different types of therapies varies in different subgroups of this heterogeneous disease. The subgroups are based on histological and molecular characteristics of the tumor, especially the expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Hormone-dependent breast cancer, determined predominantly by the presence of ER, is the most common type of breast cancer. Patients with hormone-dependent breast cancer have an available targeted therapy, however, tumor cells can develop resistance to the therapy, which is a major obstacle limiting the success of treatment and enabling relapse to metastatic disease.

Assessment of clinical outcomes of medicinal cannabis therapy for depression: analysis from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry

Although pre-clinical experiments associate cannabinoids with reduced depressive symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical evidence. This study aims to analyze the health-related quality of life changes and safety outcomes in patients prescribed cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) for depression.

The E-cigarette or Vaping Product Use–Associated Lung Injury Epidemic: Pathogenesis, Management, and Future Directions

E-cigarette or vaping product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) is a severe pulmonary illness associated with the use of e-cigarettes or vaping products that was officially identified and named in 2019. This American Thoracic Society workshop was convened in 2021 to identify and prioritize research and regulatory needs to adequately respond to the EVALI outbreak and to prevent similar instances of disease associated with e-cigarette or vaping product use. An interdisciplinary group of 26 experts in adult and pediatric clinical care, public health, regulatory oversight, and toxicology were convened for the workshop. Four major topics were examined: 1) the public health and regulatory response to EVALI; 2) EVALI clinical care; 3) mechanisms contributing to EVALI; and 4) needed actions to address the health effects of EVALI.

The effect of medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease: analysis from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry

annabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) have shown promising preclinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, clinical trials have not demonstrated effects on inflammation. This study aims to analyze changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and adverse events in IBD patients prescribed CBMPs.

Phytochemical Constituents and Derivatives of Cannabis sativa; Bridging the Gap in Melanoma Treatment

Schanknecht, E., Bachari, A., Nassar, N., Piva, T., & Mantri, N. (2023). Phytochemical Constituents and Derivatives of Cannabis sativa; Bridging the Gap in Melanoma Treatment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(1), 859.

Mutual Links between the Endocannabinoidome and the Gut Microbiome, with Special Reference to Companion Animals: A Nutritional Viewpoint

Dysbiosis, which is an imbalance of gut microbial composition and function, can be caused by several external as well as internal factors, contributing to the onset of human and animal disorders, not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, the mechanisms leading to disease development involve a crucial interaction between the gut microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host. The expanded endocannabinoid system, also known as the “endocannabinoidome”, includes endocannabinoids (e.g., anandamide) and endocannabinoid-like mediators (e.g., palmitoylethanolamide), their receptors and metabolic enzymes. Dysregulation of this newly recognized endogenous system is also involved in several diseases. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a link between the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome exists. Here, we review some of the latest discoveries related to the functional link between these two complex systems and the disorders emerging from the malfunctioning of such a mutual interaction: for example, idiopathic inflammation, chronic enteropathies, metabolic disease and certain neuroinflammatory disorders. It is expected that in the near future new nutritional tools will emerge based on the expanding knowledge in this cutting-edge field.

The Utility of Cannabis-Based Medicine in Chronic Pain Management: A Case Report

Chronic pain is a common diagnosis that patients may face, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality and affecting the overall quality of life. In addition to established multidisciplinary pain management, medical cannabis may offer an approach to improving pain outcomes and functionality. This case involves a 72-year-old female patient, with chronic neck, lower back, and diffuse arthritic pain due to comorbid osteoarthritis (OA), scleroderma, and scoliosis. Medical cannabis therapy was certified based on the goals of improving pain control and simultaneously reducing the patient’s chronic opioid medication dose. Using potential opioid alternatives, such as medical cannabis, may prove beneficial to clinicians looking to improve pain management and reduce opioid therapy in patients.

Long-term efficacy and safety of cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsies: 4-year results from the expanded access program

Cannabidiol (CBD) expanded access program (EAP), initiated in 2014, provided add-on CBD to patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE) at 35 US epilepsy centers. Prior publications reported results through December 2016; herein, we present efficacy and safety results through January 2019.

Efficacy and Safety of Medical Marijuana in Migraine Headache: A Systematic Review

Medical marijuana treatment for migraine is becoming more common, although the legality and societal acceptance of marijuana for medical purposes in the United States have been challenged by the stigma attached to it as a recreational drug. These substances function to reduce nociception and decrease the frequency of migraine by having an impact on the endocannabinoid system. Our study reviewed the clinical response, dosing, and side effects of marijuana in migraine management. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, and nine studies were included in the systematic review. The studies demonstrated that medical marijuana has a significant clinical response by reducing the length and frequency of migraines. No severe adverse effects were noted. Due to its effectiveness and convenience, medical marijuana therapy may be helpful for patients suffering from migraines. However, additional clinical trials and observational studies with longer follow-ups are required to study the efficacy and safety of the drug.

Impact of Prenatal Cannabis Use Disorder on Perinatal Outcomes

With legislative changes to cannabis legalization and increasing prevalence of use, cannabis is the most commonly used federally illicit drug in pregnancy. Our study aims to assess the perinatal outcomes associated with prenatal cannabis use disorder.

Treatment with Cannabidiol Results in an Antioxidant and Cardioprotective Effect in Several Pathophysiologies

Cannabis sativa has chemically active compounds called cannabinoids, where Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are the major ones responsible for the various pharmacological effects. The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous system considered a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator. It is made up of type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors. CBD, in turn, has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, and regulates the effects arising from THC as a CB1 partial agonist, which are tachycardia, anxiety, and sedation. It also acts as a CB2 inverse agonist, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, its anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, antiemetic, anxiolytic, anticancer, and antioxidant effects seem to be linked to other discovered receptors such as GRP55, 5TH1a, TRPV I, TRPV II and the regulation of the intracellular concentration of Ca2+. Regarding oxidative stress, O2- can act as an oxidizing agent, being reduced to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or as a reducing agent, donating its extra electron to NO to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-). The ONOO- formed is capable of oxidizing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, causing several cell damages. In this sense, CBD can prevent cardiac oxidative damage in many conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, or even through the cardiotoxic effects induced by chemotherapy, which makes it a potential target for future clinical use to minimize the deleterious effects of many pathophysiologies.

Therapeutic Effects of Cannabinoids and Their Applications in COVID-19 Treatment

Cannabidiol is showing promising results for the treatment of COVID-19, due to its capa- bility of acting on the unleashed cytokine storm, on the proteins necessary for both virus entry and replication and on the neurological consequences of patients who have been infected by the virus. Here, we summarize the latest knowledge regarding the advantages of using cannabinoids in the treatment of COVID-19.