Tourette syndrome is characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. There is preliminary evidence of benefit from cannabis products containing D9-tetrahydrocannabi- nol (THC) and that coadministration of cannabidiol (CBD) improves the side-effect profile and safety.In this double-blind, crossover trial, participants with severe Tourette syndrome were randomly assigned to a 6-week treatment period with escalating doses of an oral oil containing 5 mg/ml of THC and 5 mg/ml of CBD, followed by a 6-week course of placebo, or vice versa, separated by a 4-week washout period. The primary outcome was the total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS; range, 0 to 50 [higher scores indicate greater severity of symptoms]). Secondary outcomes included video-based assessment of tics, global impairment, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Out- comes were correlated with plasma levels of cannabinoid metabolites. A computerized cogni- tive battery was administered at the beginning and the end of each treatment period.
A better understanding of the endocannabinoid system and a relaxation in regulatory control of cannabis globally has increased interest in the medicinal use of cannabinoid-based products (CBP). We provide a systematic review of the rationale and current clinical trial evidence for CBP in the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Trials was performed to identify articles published after 1980 about CBP for medical purposes in individuals aged 18 years or younger with selected neuropsychiatric or neurodevelopmental conditions. Risk of bias and quality of evidence was assessed for each article. Of 4466 articles screened, 18 were eligible for inclusion, addressing eight conditions (anxiety disorders (n = 1); autism spectrum disorder (n = 5); foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (n = 1); fragile X syndrome (n = 2); intellectual disability (n = 1); mood disorders (n = 2); post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 3); and Tourette syndrome (n = 3)). Only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) was identified. The remaining seventeen articles included one open-label trial, three uncontrolled before-and-after trials, two case series and 11 case reports, thus the risk of bias was high. Despite growing community and scientific interest, our systematic review identified limited and generally poor-quality evidence for the efficacy of CBP in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. Large rigorous RCTs are required to inform clinical care. In the meantime, clinicians must balance patient expectations with the limited evidence available.
The therapeutic application of cannabidiol (CBD) is gaining interest due to expanding evidence for its use.
Objective: To summarize the clinical outcomes, study designs and limitations for the use of CBD and nabiximols (whole plant extract from Cannabis sativa L. that has been purified into 1:1 ratio of CBD and delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol) in the treatment of psychiatric disorders.
Author: Ethan B. Russo Published in: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience October 2018 Abstract Introduction: Cannabis burst across the Western medicine horizon after its introduction by William O’Shaughnessy in 1838 (O’Shaughnessy, 1838–1840;…
JAMA, 23 June 2015
IMPORTANCE: Cannabis and cannabinoid drugs are widely used to treat disease or alleviate symptoms, but their efficacy for specific indications is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the benefits and adverse events (AEs) of cannabinoids. DATA SOURCES: Twenty…
British Journal of Psychiatry, January 2014
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder are heritable but aetiologically complex. Although environment plays a role in their development, existing studies of non-genetic risk factors are inconsistent. AIMS:
To examine the association between pre- and perinatal e…
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7 October 2009
BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by the presence of chronic motor and phonic tics. Drugs currently used in the treatment of GTS either lack efficacy or are associated with intolerable side effects. Ther…
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, October 2003
Currently, the treatment of Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is expanding interest in new therapeutical strategies. Anecdotal reports suggested that the use of cannabis might improve not only tics, but also behavioural problems in patients with TS…
Neuropsychopharmacology, February 2003
Previous studies provide evidence that marijuana (Cannabis sativa) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, respectively, are effective in the treatment of tics and behavioral problems in Tourette syndrome (TS). It, there…