Cannabinoids in Treating Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms: A Systematic Review of Clinical Studies

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a serious neurodegenerative condition impacting many individuals worldwide. There is a need for new non-invasive treatments of PD. Cannabinoids in the form of cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may offer utility as treatment, and our objective was hence to conduct a systematic review regarding the clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids in treating PD.

Long-term safety of medical cannabis in Parkinson’s disease: A retrospective case-control study

Whole-plant medical cannabis (MC) products are widely used for controlling symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Despite its widespread use, few studies have investigated the long-term impact of MC on the progression of PD or its safety profile. This study examined the effects of MC on PD in a real-life setting. A retrospective case-control study of 152 idiopathic PD patients (mean age 69.1 ± 9.0 years), followed at the Sheba Medical Center Movement Disorders Institute (SMDI) from 2008 to 2022 was conducted. Seventy-six patients who used licensed whole-plant medical cannabis (MC) for at least a year were compared to a matched group who did not receive MC in terms of their Levodopa Equivalent Daily Dose (LEDD), Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage, and cognitive, depressive, and psychotic symptoms.

Medical Cannabis in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

Medical cannabis (MC) has recently garnered interest as a potential treatment for neurologic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). A retrospective chart review was conducted to explore the impact of MC on the symptomatic treatment of patients with PD. Patients with PD treated with MC in the normal course of clinical practice were included (n = 69). Data collected from patient charts included MC ratio/formulation changes, PD symptom changes after initiation of MC, and adverse events (AEs) from MC use. Information regarding changes in concomitant medications after MC initiation, including opioids, benzodiazepines, muscle relaxants, and PD medications, was also collected.

Cannabidiol goes nuclear: The role of PPARγ

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main phytocannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa. In contrast to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, it has a low affinity for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, thereby it does not induce significant psychoactive effects. However, CBD may interact with other receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). CBD is a PPARγ agonist and changes its expression. There is considerable evidence that CBD’s effects are mediated by its interaction with PPARγ. So, we reviewed studies related to the interaction of CBD and PPARγ.

Cannabis sativa and Cannabidiol: A Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases?

This work is a literature review, presenting the current state of the use of cannabinoids on neurodegenerative diseases. The emphasis is on Parkinson’s (PD) and Alzheimer’s (AD) diseases, the two most prevalent neurological diseases. The review goes from Cannabis sativa and its hundreds of bioactive compounds to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and mainly cannabidiol (CBD) and their interactions with the endocannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).

Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: A comprehensive review

This review briefly discusses the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration and demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, highlighting its general mechanism of action and disease-specific pathways in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Furthermore, we have summarized the preclinical and clinical findings on the therapeutic promise of CBD in PD and AD, shed light on the importance of determining its therapeutic window, and provide insights into identifying promising new research directions.

Higher Risk, Higher Reward? Self-Reported Effects of Real-World Cannabis Use in Parkinson’s Disease

IDespite limited evidence, people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) use cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Given barriers to performing randomized trials, exploring real-world experiences with cannabis in PD is valuable. Investigate the frequency and magnitude of symptomatic effects reported with cannabis use in PD. An anonymous, 15-question, web-based survey was deployed on Fox Insight. Cannabis product types were defined (by relative tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] and cannabidiol [CBD] content) and respondents were asked to reference product labels. Questions focused on use patterns and subjective effects on 36 predefined symptoms (rated −2-markedly worse to +2-markedly better).

Cannabinoids and the expanded endocannabinoid system in neurological disorders.

Authors: Luigia Cristino, Tiziana Bisogno, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Nature Reviews Neurology, January 2020

Anecdotal evidence that cannabis preparations have medical benefits together with the discovery of the psychotropic plant cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) initiated efforts to develop cannabinoid-based therapeutics. These efforts have been marked by disappointment, es…

Cannabis in Parkinson’s Disease: Hype or help?

Authors: Tina Mainka, Jan Stork, Ute Hidding, Carsten Buhmann
Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie, February 2018

Cannabis buds and extracts as well as synthetic cannabinoids have been available on prescription to patients with severe diseases since March 2017, with the costs covered by health insurance companies.The prescription of medical marihuana is not restricted to specific symptoms…

Medical Cannabis in Parkinson Disease: Real-Life Patients’ Experience.

Authors: Yacov Balash, Lihi Bar-Lev Schleider, Amos Korczyn, Herzel Shabtai, Judith Knaani, et al
Clinical Neuropharmacology, November/December 2017

BACKGROUND: The use of medical cannabis (MC) is controversial. Support for its benefits is based on small clinical series. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the results of a standardized interview study that retrospectively assessed the effects of MC on symptoms o…

Cannabinoids in Parkinson’s Disease.

Authors: Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Andrea Sancesario, Roberta Morace, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, February 2017

The endocannabinoid system plays a regulatory role in a number of physiological processes and has been found altered in different pathological conditions, including movement disorders. The interactions between cannabinoids and dopamine in the basal ganglia are remarkably compl…

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes.

Authors: Ethan B. Russo
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1 July 2016

Medicine continues to struggle in its approaches to numerous common subjective pain syndromes that lack objective signs and remain treatment resistant. Foremost among these are migraine, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome, disorders that may overlap in their affected p…