Cannabidiol in the acute phase of Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES)

Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a prolonged refractory status epilepticus (SE) that develops among healthy individuals after a febrile infection.

FIRES treatment is challenging due to its poor response to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) and anesthetic drugs. The use of cannabidiol (CBD) as an adjunctive treatment has been suggested, albeit data about its role in the acute phase is lacking. This report describes the use of purified CBD in the acute phase of two pediatric cases of FIRES and their long-term outcome.

Both children were treated with several ASMs, immunomodulators, anesthetics, and non-pharmacological treatment (ketogenic diet). CBD was administered, as an adjunctive treatment, through nasogastric tube about 30 days after onset. SE resolved within three days of reaching the target dose and both were seizure-free for one year after.

Although it is difficult to define the extent to which each previous therapy contributed to recovery, in both cases CBD therapy was a turning point, reinforcing its potential role as add-on treatment in the acute phase of FIRES.

Cannabidiol Negatively Regulates Androgenic Signal in Prostate Cancer Cells and Fine-Tunes the Tumorigenesis by Modulating Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation, Unfolded Protein Response, and Autophagy

Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae, has been used as a herbal medicine for several thousand years in many cultures and it has more than 540 metabolites that provide therapeutic effects. Cannabinoids are the major compounds derived from the Cannabis species. There are over 120 isolated and identified cannabinoids from C. sativa and (−)-cannabidiol is one of the most well-researched among them. Recent studies have focused on the expanding usage of cannabidiol in many therapeutic areas as well as cancer. Studies demonstrated a negative correlation between cannabidiol administration and the growth of various cancer types, including prostate cancer. However, the detailed mode of action of cannabidiol on prostate cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of cannabidiol prostate cancer cells. For this aim, we examined the effect of cannabidiol on autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, unfolded protein response, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and androgenic signaling in vitro. We found that cannabidiol remarkably inhibited autophagy. Also, it strongly induced unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation mechanisms. Moreover, it exerted anti-cancer activity by reducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and causing cell cycle arrest. Additionally, cannabidiol importantly disrupted androgenic signaling by affecting basal androgen receptor levels and inhibiting nuclear translocation of this receptor.

Cannabidiol modulates excitatory-inhibitory ratio to counter hippocampal hyperactivity

Rosenberg et al. reveal a potential mechanism by which cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizures. They discover that CBD restores the hippocampal excitatory-to- inhibitory ratio by preventing the actions of the lipid LPI at the receptor GPR55. Seizures acutely potentiate the GPR55- LPI axis, providing a target for CBD’s anti- seizure action.

Cannabidiol goes nuclear: The role of PPARγ

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main phytocannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa. In contrast to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, it has a low affinity for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, thereby it does not induce significant psychoactive effects. However, CBD may interact with other receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). CBD is a PPARγ agonist and changes its expression. There is considerable evidence that CBD’s effects are mediated by its interaction with PPARγ. So, we reviewed studies related to the interaction of CBD and PPARγ.

Effects of Cannabidiol on Innate Immunity Experimental Evidence and Clinical Evidence

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid derived from cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., fam. Cannabaceae). CBD has received approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome. However, CBD also has prominent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects; evidence exists that it could be beneficial in chronic inflammation, and even in acute inflammatory conditions, such as those due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this work, we review available evidence concerning CBD’s effects on the modulation of innate immunity. Despite the lack so far of clinical studies, extensive preclinical evidence in different models, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, and even ex vivo experiments on cells from human healthy subjects, shows that CBD exerts a wide range of inhibitory effects by decreasing cytokine production and tissue infiltration, and acting on a variety of other inflammation-related functions in several innate immune cells. Clinical studies are now warranted to establish the therapeutic role of CBD in diseases with a strong inflammatory component, such as multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases, cancer, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases

Use of cannabinol in the treatment of epilepsy: Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome , Dravet, and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Purpose: The objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficiency, safety and short and long term tolerability of Cannabidiol CBD, as an adjunct treatment , in children and adults with Dravet Syndrome (SD) and Lennox Gastaut Syndrome(LGS) or Tuberous Sclerosis Complex with inadequate control of seizures.

Long-term efficacy and safety of cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsies: 4-year results from the expanded access program

Cannabidiol (CBD) expanded access program (EAP), initiated in 2014, provided add-on CBD to patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE) at 35 US epilepsy centers. Prior publications reported results through December 2016; herein, we present efficacy and safety results through January 2019.

Cannabidiol in refractory status epilepticus: A review of clinical experiences

To summarize and evaluate clinical experiences with refractory status epilepticus in which cannabidiol (CBD) was utilized for cessation of seizure activity. A comprehensive literature review was performed on PubMED, MEDLINE, Scopus, and CINAHL between May – June 2022 with the assistance of a medical reference librarian using the following search terms: “Cannabidiol” [MAJR], “Status Epilepticus” [MAJR], “New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus”, and “cannabidiol.” Reports that provided dosing regimens and patient outcomes were included.

Clinical efficacy and safety of cannabidiol for pediatric refractory epilepsy indications: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Evidence suggests cannabidiol (CBD) has anxiolytic properties, indicating potential for novel treatment strategies. However, few clinical trials of CBD-based products have been conducted, and none thus far have examined the impact of these products on cognition.

Long-term use of cannabidiol-enriched medical cannabis in a prospective cohort of children with drug-resistant developmental and epileptic encephalopathy

We report our findings regarding effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of cannabidiol (CBD)-enriched medical cannabis as add-on therapy in children with drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) after a median follow-up of 20 months.

Medical cannabis for severe treatment resistant epilepsy in children: a case- series of 10 patients

To report the findings of a case-series of 10 children suffering with intractable epilepsies in the UK to determine the feasibility for using whole-plant cannabis medicines to treat seizures in children. This study was conducted retrospectively through collecting clinical data from caretakers and clinicians on study outcome variables. Participants were recruited through the MedCann Support and End our Pain charity groups which are patient representative groups that support children who are using medical cannabis

Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: A Review

Cultural and social misconceptions and roadblocks about the use of cannabinoids persist and represent an ongoing obstacle to increasing research and therapeutic use of these compounds. This review focuses on all these aspects and of the use of these cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy and seeks to offer a fairly comprehensive description of the facets of cannabinoid therapy for refractory epilepsy.