Fabrizio Calapai, Luigi Cardia, Emanuela Esposito, Ilaria Ammendolia, Cristina Mondello, Roberto Lo Giudice, Sebastiano Gangemi,Gioacchino Calapai , and Carmen Mannucci
November 8, 2022
Cannabigerol (CBG) is a cannabinoid from the plant Cannabis sativa that lacks psychotomimetic efects. Its precursor is the acidic form, cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which is, in turn, a biosynthetic precursor of the compounds cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). CBGA decarboxylation leads to the formation of neutral cannabinoid CBG, through a chemical reaction catalyzed by heat. On the basis of the growing interest in CBG and with the aim of highlighting scientifc information on this phytocannabinoid, we focused the content of this article on its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and on its principal pharmacological efects. CBG is metabolized in the liver by the enzyme CYP2J2 to produce hydroxyl and di-oxygenated products. CBG is considered a partial agonist at the CB1 receptor (R) and CB2R, as well as a regulator of endo- cannabinoid signaling. Potential pharmacological targets for CBG include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) enzymes, cannabinoid, 5-HT1A, and alpha-2 receptors. Pre-clinical findings show that CBG reduces intraocular pressure, possesses antioxidant, anti-infammatory, and anti-tumoral activities, and has anti-anxiety, neuroprotective, dermatological, and appetite-stimulating effects. Several fndings suggest that research on CBG deserves to be deepened, as it could be used, alone or in association, for novel therapeutic approaches for several disorders.
Calapai, F., Cardia, L., Esposito, E., Ammendolia, I., Mondello, C., Lo Giudice, R., … & Mannucci, C. (2022). Pharmacological Aspects and Biological Effects of Cannabigerol and Its Synthetic Derivatives. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2022.