Hebaallah Mamdouh Hashiesha, Charu Sharmab, Sameer N. Goyalc, Bassem Sadeka, Niraj Kumar Jhad, Juma Al Kaabib, Shreesh Ojha

Published in Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

August 2021


The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a conserved physiological system emerged as a novel pharmacological target for its significant role and potential therapeutic benefits ranging from neurological diseases to cancer. Among both, CB1 and CB2R types, CB2R have received attention for its pharmacological effects as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic that can be achieved without causing psychotropic adverse effects through CB1R. The ligands activate CB2R are of endogenous, synthetic and plant origin. In recent years, β-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene in cannabis as well as non-cannabis plants, has received attention due to its selective agonist property on CB2R. BCP has been well studied in a variety of pathological conditions mediating CB2R selective agonist property. The focus of the present manuscript is to represent the CB2R selective agonist mediated pharmacological mechanisms and therapeutic potential of BCP. The present narrative review summarizes insights into the CB2R-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of BCP such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, gastroprotective, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulator. The available evidences suggest that BCP, can be an important candidate of plant origin endowed with CB2R selective properties that may provide a pharmacological rationale for its pharmacotherapeutic application and pharmaceutical development like a drug. Additionally, given the wide availability in edible plants and dietary use, with safety, and no toxicity, BCP can be promoted as a nutraceutical and functional food for general health and well-being. Further, studies are needed to explore pharmacological and pharmaceutical opportunities for therapeutic and preventive applications of use of BCP in human diseases.

Open Access


DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111639


Hashiesh, H. M., Sharma, C., Goyal, S. N., Sadek, B., Jha, N. K., Al Kaabi, J., & Ojha, S. (2021). A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 140, 111639.