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Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes.

Authors: Ethan B. Russo
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1 July 2016

Medicine continues to struggle in its approaches to numerous common subjective pain syndromes that lack objective signs and remain treatment resistant. Foremost among these are migraine, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome, disorders that may overlap in their affected p…

Use and effects of cannabinoids in military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Authors: Kevin Betthauser, Jeffrey Pilz, Laura E. Vollmer
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1 August 2015

PURPOSE: Published evidence regarding the use of cannabis and cannabis derivatives by military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reviewed. SUMMARY: When inhaled or delivered orally or transdermally, cannabinoids (the psychoactive components of unrefined mar…

PTSD symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program.

Authors: George R. Greer, Charles S. Grob, Adam L. Halberstadt
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, January-March 2014

BACKGROUND: New Mexico was the first state to list post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a condition for the use of medical cannabis. There are no published studies, other than case reports, of the effects of cannabis on PTSD symptoms. The purpose of the study was to report…

Elevated brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in post-traumatic stress disorder: a positron emission tomography study.

Authors: A Neumeister, M D Normandin, R H Pietrzak, D Piomelli, M Q Zheng, A Gujarro-Anton, et al
Molecular Psychiatry, September 2013

Endocannabinoids and their attending cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor have been implicated in animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, their specific role has not been studied in people with PTSD. Herein, we present an in vivo imaging study using posit…

The endocannabinoid system as a possible target to treat both the cognitive and emotional features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder of significant prevalence and morbidity, whose pathogenesis relies on paradoxical changes of emotional memory processing. An ideal treatment would be a drug able to block the pathological over-consolidation and continuous retrieval of the traumatic event, while enhancing its extinction and reducing the anxiety symptoms.

Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: a review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence.

Authors: Torsten Passie, Hinderk M. Emrich, Matthias Karst, Simon D. Brandt, John H. Halpern
Drug Testing and Analysis, July-August 2012

It is known from clinical studies that some patients attempt to cope with the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by using recreational drugs. This review presents a case report of a 19-year-old male patient with a spectrum of severe PTSD symptoms, such as intens…

Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity and Marijuana Use Coping Motives: A Test of the Mediating Role of Non-Judgmental Acceptance within a Trauma-Exposed Community Sample.

Authors: Marcel O. Bonn-Miller, Anka A. Vujanovic, Michael P. Twohig, Johnna L. Medina, Jennifer L. Huggins Published in Mindfulness 25 May 2010   Abstract We examined the role of non-judgmental acceptance in the relation between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana use coping motives. These relations were examined among 97 (46 women) adults (M age = 21.57…

The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Authors: George A. Fraser
CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, Winter 2009

This is the report of an open label clinical trial to evaluate the effects of nabilone, an endocannabinoid receptor agonist, on treatment-resistant nightmares in patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Charts of 47 patients diagnosed with PTSD an…

Association of the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) with ADHD and post‐traumatic stress disorder.

Authors: Ake T. Lu, Matthew N. Ogdie, Marjo‐Ritta Järvelin, Irma K. Moilanen, Sandra K. Loo, et al
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 22 January 2008

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder affecting some 5-10% of children and 4-5% of adults. The cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) is a positional candidate gene due to its location near an identified ADHD linkage peak on chromosome 6, its…