Targeting Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Cancer Prevention and Treatment: The Role of Cannabis Compounds

The development and progression of cancer are associated with the dysregulation of multiple pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival, as well as dysfunction in redox balance, immune response, and inflammation. The master antioxidant pathway, known as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, regulates the cellular defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, making it a promising cancer prevention and treatment target. Cannabinoids have demonstrated anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties, affecting signaling pathways, including Nrf2. Increased oxidative stress following exposure to anti-cancer therapy prompts cancer cells to activate antioxidant mechanisms. This indicates the dual effect of Nrf2 in cancer cells—influencing proliferation and apoptotic processes and protecting against the toxicity of anti-cancer therapy. Therefore, understanding the complex role of cannabinoids in modulating Nrf2 might shed light on its potential implementation as an anti-cancer support.

Anti-proliferative effect of Cannabidiol in Prostate cancer cell PC3 is mediated by apoptotic cell death, NFκB activation, increased oxidative stress, and lower reduced glutathione status

Prostate cancer is the second most frequent cancer diagnosed in men in the world today. Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas and develop from gland cells. We used the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, which is well studied and derived from a bone metastasis of a grade IV prostatic adenocarcinoma. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, is a cannabinoid with anti-tumor properties but its effects on prostate cancer cells are not studied in detail. Here, we found cannabidiol decreased prostate cancer cell (PC3) viability up to 37.25% and induced apoptotic cell death in a time and dose-dependent manner. We found that CBD activated the caspases 3/7 pathways and increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, we observed an increase of pro-apoptotic genes Bax, an increased level of reactive oxygen species, lower reduced glutathione level, and altered mitochondrial potential in response to CBD treatment leading to lower cellular ATP. Overall, our results suggest that CBD may be effective against prostate cancer cells.

Antitumor Effects of Cannabis sativa Bioactive Compounds on Colorectal Carcinogenesis

Cannabis sativa is a multipurpose plant that has been used in medicine for centuries. Recently, considerable research has focused on the bioactive compounds of this plant, particularly cannabinoids and terpenes. Among other properties, these compounds exhibit antitumor effects in several cancer types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Cannabinoids show positive effects in the treatment of CRC by inducing apoptosis, proliferation, metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and autophagy. Terpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, limonene, and myrcene, have also been reported to have potential antitumor effects on CRC through the induction of apoptosis, the inhibition of cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. In addition, synergy effects between cannabinoids and terpenes are believed to be important factors in the treatment of CRC. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the potential of cannabinoids and terpenoids from C. sativa to serve as bioactive agents for the treatment of CRC while evidencing the need for further research to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action and the safety of these compounds.

Cannabidiol as a potential novel treatment for endometriosis by its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiangiogenic effects in an experimental rat model

Endometrial implants were surgically induced in 36 female Wistar albino rats. After confirmation of endometriotic foci, the rats were randomized into four groups. In the leuprolide acetate group, rats were given a single 1 mg/kg s.c. leuprolide acetate injection. The other groups were 5 mg/kg CBD (CBD5), saline solution and 20 mg/kg CBD (CBD20); daily i.p. injections were administered for 7 days. After 21 days, the rats were euthanised, and total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) measurements in blood and peritoneal fluid samples, and immunohistochemical staining for TNF-α, IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of endometriotic tissues were evaluated.

Cannabidiol: Bridge between Antioxidant Effect, Cellular Protection, and Cognitive and Physical Performance

The literature provides scientific evidence for the beneficial effects of cannabidiol (CBD), and these effects extend beyond epilepsy treatment (e.g., Lennox–Gastaut and Dravet syndromes), notably the influence on oxidative status, neurodegeneration, cellular protection, cognitive function, and physical performance. However, products containing CBD are not allowed to be marketed everywhere in the world, which may ultimately have a negative effect on health as a result of the uncontrolled CBD market. After the isolation of CBD follows the discovery of CB1 and CB2 receptors and the main enzymatic components (diacylglycerol lipase (DAG lipase), monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL), fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)).

Antioxidant promotion and oxidative stress downregulation by β-caryophyllene oxide attenuate lung cancer A549 cell proliferation

One of the most common cancers that result in death is lung cancer. There is new hope in the ght against lung cancer thanks to the chemopreventive properties of natural dietary substances like β- caryophyllene oxide (CPO), and research is currently being done to test this theory. CPO, a sesquiterpene isolated from medicinal plant essential oils, inhibits carcinogenesis and has been effective in treating many cancers. This study examined how CPO affected proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells. CPO was found to have an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 124.1 g/ml.

Treatment with Cannabidiol Results in an Antioxidant and Cardioprotective Effect in Several Pathophysiologies

Cannabis sativa has chemically active compounds called cannabinoids, where Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are the major ones responsible for the various pharmacological effects. The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous system considered a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator. It is made up of type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors. CBD, in turn, has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, and regulates the effects arising from THC as a CB1 partial agonist, which are tachycardia, anxiety, and sedation. It also acts as a CB2 inverse agonist, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, its anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, antiemetic, anxiolytic, anticancer, and antioxidant effects seem to be linked to other discovered receptors such as GRP55, 5TH1a, TRPV I, TRPV II and the regulation of the intracellular concentration of Ca2+. Regarding oxidative stress, O2- can act as an oxidizing agent, being reduced to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or as a reducing agent, donating its extra electron to NO to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-). The ONOO- formed is capable of oxidizing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, causing several cell damages. In this sense, CBD can prevent cardiac oxidative damage in many conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, or even through the cardiotoxic effects induced by chemotherapy, which makes it a potential target for future clinical use to minimize the deleterious effects of many pathophysiologies.

Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: A comprehensive review

This review briefly discusses the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration and demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, highlighting its general mechanism of action and disease-specific pathways in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Furthermore, we have summarized the preclinical and clinical findings on the therapeutic promise of CBD in PD and AD, shed light on the importance of determining its therapeutic window, and provide insights into identifying promising new research directions.

Pharmacological management of cancer pain: Novel therapeutics

Patients diagnosed with cancer often experience pain during their treatment course, making it difficult to care for themselves and continue with their activities of daily living. When cancer is found at later stages, the pain can become severe and constant; reducing their quality of life and significantly affecting mental and physical well-being. Despite opioids being known to provide adequate analgesia for higher pain levels, they are often the reason for under-dosing because of their adverse effects and concern for addiction. There are also patients who do not respond well to opioids because of genetic anomalies or personal preference. Therefore, there is a need for novel non-opioid cancer pain treatments. There are many new cancer pain treatments that are emerging. This manuscript discusses cancer pain, risk factors, epidemiology, guidelines for the treatment of cancer pain, personalization of cancer pain therapy, breakthrough pain, cancer-induced peripheral neuropathy, established cancer pain treatment options, and novel emerging cancer pain treatment options.

Intracellular Molecular Targets and Signaling Pathways Involved in Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Conditions

In the last few decades, endocannabinoids, plant-derived cannabinoids and synthetic can- nabinoids have received growing interest as treatment options in neurodegenerative conditions. In various experimental settings, they have displayed antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects. However, due to numerous targets and down- stream effectors of their action, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are rather complex and still under discussion.

Cannabinoid-2 receptor limits inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death in nephropathy

Authors: Partha Mukhopadhyaya, Mohanraj Rajesha, Hao Pan, Vivek Patel, Bani Mukhopadhyaya, Sándor Bátkai, Bin Gao, György Haskóc, Pál Pachera Published in Journal of Pain and Symptom Management February 2010 Abstract Cisplatin…

Cannabinoid-2 receptor activation ameliorates hepatorenal syndrome

Authors: Eszter Trojnar, Katalin Erdelyi,Csaba Matyas, Suxian Zhao, Janos Paloczi, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Zoltan V.Varga, Gyorgy Hasko, Pal Pacher Published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine May 2020 Abstract Study rationale: Hepatorenal…