Cannabidiol: Bridge between Antioxidant Effect, Cellular Protection, and Cognitive and Physical Performance

The literature provides scientific evidence for the beneficial effects of cannabidiol (CBD), and these effects extend beyond epilepsy treatment (e.g., Lennox–Gastaut and Dravet syndromes), notably the influence on oxidative status, neurodegeneration, cellular protection, cognitive function, and physical performance. However, products containing CBD are not allowed to be marketed everywhere in the world, which may ultimately have a negative effect on health as a result of the uncontrolled CBD market. After the isolation of CBD follows the discovery of CB1 and CB2 receptors and the main enzymatic components (diacylglycerol lipase (DAG lipase), monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL), fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)).

Antioxidant promotion and oxidative stress downregulation by β-caryophyllene oxide attenuate lung cancer A549 cell proliferation

One of the most common cancers that result in death is lung cancer. There is new hope in the ght against lung cancer thanks to the chemopreventive properties of natural dietary substances like β- caryophyllene oxide (CPO), and research is currently being done to test this theory. CPO, a sesquiterpene isolated from medicinal plant essential oils, inhibits carcinogenesis and has been effective in treating many cancers. This study examined how CPO affected proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells. CPO was found to have an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 124.1 g/ml.

Treatment with Cannabidiol Results in an Antioxidant and Cardioprotective Effect in Several Pathophysiologies

Cannabis sativa has chemically active compounds called cannabinoids, where Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are the major ones responsible for the various pharmacological effects. The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous system considered a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator. It is made up of type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors. CBD, in turn, has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, and regulates the effects arising from THC as a CB1 partial agonist, which are tachycardia, anxiety, and sedation. It also acts as a CB2 inverse agonist, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, its anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, antiemetic, anxiolytic, anticancer, and antioxidant effects seem to be linked to other discovered receptors such as GRP55, 5TH1a, TRPV I, TRPV II and the regulation of the intracellular concentration of Ca2+. Regarding oxidative stress, O2- can act as an oxidizing agent, being reduced to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or as a reducing agent, donating its extra electron to NO to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-). The ONOO- formed is capable of oxidizing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, causing several cell damages. In this sense, CBD can prevent cardiac oxidative damage in many conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, or even through the cardiotoxic effects induced by chemotherapy, which makes it a potential target for future clinical use to minimize the deleterious effects of many pathophysiologies.

Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: A comprehensive review

This review briefly discusses the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration and demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, highlighting its general mechanism of action and disease-specific pathways in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Furthermore, we have summarized the preclinical and clinical findings on the therapeutic promise of CBD in PD and AD, shed light on the importance of determining its therapeutic window, and provide insights into identifying promising new research directions.

Pharmacological management of cancer pain: Novel therapeutics

Patients diagnosed with cancer often experience pain during their treatment course, making it difficult to care for themselves and continue with their activities of daily living. When cancer is found at later stages, the pain can become severe and constant; reducing their quality of life and significantly affecting mental and physical well-being. Despite opioids being known to provide adequate analgesia for higher pain levels, they are often the reason for under-dosing because of their adverse effects and concern for addiction. There are also patients who do not respond well to opioids because of genetic anomalies or personal preference. Therefore, there is a need for novel non-opioid cancer pain treatments. There are many new cancer pain treatments that are emerging. This manuscript discusses cancer pain, risk factors, epidemiology, guidelines for the treatment of cancer pain, personalization of cancer pain therapy, breakthrough pain, cancer-induced peripheral neuropathy, established cancer pain treatment options, and novel emerging cancer pain treatment options.

Intracellular Molecular Targets and Signaling Pathways Involved in Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Conditions

In the last few decades, endocannabinoids, plant-derived cannabinoids and synthetic can- nabinoids have received growing interest as treatment options in neurodegenerative conditions. In various experimental settings, they have displayed antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects. However, due to numerous targets and down- stream effectors of their action, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are rather complex and still under discussion.

Cannabinoid-2 receptor limits inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death in nephropathy

Authors: Partha Mukhopadhyaya, Mohanraj Rajesha, Hao Pan, Vivek Patel, Bani Mukhopadhyaya, Sándor Bátkai, Bin Gao, György Haskóc, Pál Pachera Published in Journal of Pain and Symptom Management February 2010 Abstract Cisplatin…

Cannabinoid-2 receptor activation ameliorates hepatorenal syndrome

Authors: Eszter Trojnar, Katalin Erdelyi,Csaba Matyas, Suxian Zhao, Janos Paloczi, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Zoltan V.Varga, Gyorgy Hasko, Pal Pacher Published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine May 2020 Abstract Study rationale: Hepatorenal…

Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptor 2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

Authors: Vivek S. Kumawat, Ginpreet Kaur
European Journal of Pharmacology, 5 November 2019

The biological effects of endocannabinoid system are mediated by two types of receptors, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2). They play a pivotal role in the management of pain, inflammation, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus. CB2 receptor activity downreg…

Novel interventions to reduce oxidative-stress related brain injury in neonatal asphyxia.

Authors: A.L. Solevåga, G.M. Schmölzer, P.-Y.Cheung
Free Radical Biology and Medicine, October 2019

Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury may present as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the neonatal period, and disability including cerebral palsy in the long term. The brain injury is secondary to both the hypoxic-ischemic event and the reoxygenation-reperfusion following…

The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits the human trophoblast cell turnover.

Authors: M.A. Costa, B.M. Fonseca, F. Marques, N.A. Teixeira, G. Correia-da-Silva
Toxicology, 6 August 2015

The noxious effects of cannabis consumption for fertility and pregnancy outcome are recognized for years. Its consumption during gestation is associated with alterations in foetal growth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The main psychoactive molecule of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetr…

Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma.

Authors: Alessia Ligresti, Aniello Schiano Moriello, Katarzyna Starowicz, Isabel Matias, et al
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, September 2006

Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exhibits antitumor effects on various cancer cell types, but its use in chemotherapy is limited by its psychotropic activity. We investigated the antitumor activities of other plant cannabinoids, i.e., cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichrom…