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Mutual Links between the Endocannabinoidome and the Gut Microbiome, with Special Reference to Companion Animals: A Nutritional Viewpoint

Dysbiosis, which is an imbalance of gut microbial composition and function, can be caused by several external as well as internal factors, contributing to the onset of human and animal disorders, not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, the mechanisms leading to disease development involve a crucial interaction between the gut microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host. The expanded endocannabinoid system, also known as the “endocannabinoidome”, includes endocannabinoids (e.g., anandamide) and endocannabinoid-like mediators (e.g., palmitoylethanolamide), their receptors and metabolic enzymes. Dysregulation of this newly recognized endogenous system is also involved in several diseases. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a link between the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome exists. Here, we review some of the latest discoveries related to the functional link between these two complex systems and the disorders emerging from the malfunctioning of such a mutual interaction: for example, idiopathic inflammation, chronic enteropathies, metabolic disease and certain neuroinflammatory disorders. It is expected that in the near future new nutritional tools will emerge based on the expanding knowledge in this cutting-edge field.

Cloudy with a chance of munchies: Assessing the impact of recreational marijuana legalization on obesity

Obesity in the US arguably constitutes the most significant health epidemic over the past century. Recent legislative changes allowing for recreational marijuana use further create a need to better understand the relationship between marijuana use and health choices, leading to obesity. We examine this relationship by using a synthetic control approach to examine the impact of legalized recreational marijuana access on obesity rates by comparing Washington State to a synthetically constructed counterfactual. We find that recreational marijuana’s introduction did not lead to increased obesity rates and may have led to decreases in obesity.

Phytocannabinoids: Useful Drugs for the Treatment of Obesity? Special Focus on Cannabidiol.

Authors: Patrycja Bielawie, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Adrian Chabowski
Frontiers in Endocrinology, 4 March 2020

Currently, an increasing number of diseases related to insulin resistance and obesity is an alarming problem worldwide. It is well-known that the above states can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. An excessive amount of tria…

Cannabis: From a Plant That Modulates Feeding Behaviors toward Developing Selective Inhibitors of the Peripheral Endocannabinoid System for the Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

Authors: Shira Hirsch, Joseph Tam
Toxins, 15 May 2019

In this review, we discuss the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in regulating energy and metabolic homeostasis. Endocannabinoids, via activating the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R), are commonly known as mediators of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis due to their act…

Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 in Insulin Resistance and Its Biological Implications.

Authors: Arulkumar Nagappan, Jooyeon Shin, Myeong Ho Jung
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 29 April 2019

Endogenous cannabinoids (ECs) are lipid-signaling molecules that specifically bind to cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R) and are highly expressed in central and many peripheral tissues under pathological conditions. Activation of hepatic CB1R is associated with…

Intestinal permeability–a new target for disease prevention and therapy.

Authors: Stephan C. Bischoff, Giovanni Barbara, Wim Buurman, Theo Ockhuizen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, et al
BMC Gastroenterology, 18 November 2014

Data are accumulating that emphasize the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. However, these terms are poorly defined, their assessment is a matter of debate, and their clinical significance is not clearly established. In…

The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disease.

Authors: Pál Pacher, Sabine Steffens
Seminars in Immunopathology, June 2009

Endocannabinoids are endogenous bioactive lipid mediators present both in the brain and various peripheral tissues, which exert their biological effects via interaction with specific G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, the CB(1) and CB(2). Pathological overactivation of t…