Cannabinoid-Based Ocular Therapies and Formulations

The interest in the pharmacological applications of cannabinoids is largely increasing in a wide range of medical areas. Recently, research on its potential role in eye conditions, many of which are chronic and/or disabling and in need of new alternative treatments, has intensified. However, due to cannabinoids’ unfavorable physicochemical properties and adverse systemic effects, along with ocular biological barriers to local drug administration, drug delivery systems are needed. Hence, this review focused on the following: (i) identifying eye disease conditions potentially subject to treatment with cannabinoids and their pharmacological role, with emphasis on glaucoma, uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, keratitis and the prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections; (ii) reviewing the physicochemical properties of formulations that must be controlled and/or optimized for successful ocular administration; (iii) analyzing works evaluating cannabinoid-based formulations for ocular administration, with emphasis on results and limitations; and (iv) identifying alternative cannabinoid- based formulations that could potentially be useful for ocular administration strategies. Finally, an overview of the current advances and limitations in the field, the technological challenges to overcome and the prospective further developments, is provided.

Evidence That Metal Particles in Cannabis Vape Liquids Limit Measurement Reproducibility

Cannabis vaping involves the vaporization of a cannabis vaping liquid or solid via a vaping accessory such as a vape pen constructed of various metals or other parts. An increasing number of reports advocate for expansion of the testing and regulation of metal contaminants in cannabis vape liquids beyond the metals typically tested such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead to reflect the possibility of consumers’ exposure to other metal contaminants. Metal contaminants may originate not only from the cannabis itself but also from the vape devices in which the cannabis vape liquid is packaged. However, metal analyses of cannabis vape liquids sampled from cannabis vaping devices are challenged by poor precision and reproducibility. Herein, we present data on the metal content of 12 metals in 20 legal and 21 illegal cannabis vape liquids.