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A cross-sectional survey of cannabis use by people with MS in Oregon and Southwest Washington

Evidence supports that cannabinoids reduce self-reported spasticity and neuropathic pain in people with MS (PwMS), and legal access to cannabis for medical and recreational use continues to rise. However, there are limited data regarding patterns of cannabis use and perceived benefits of cannabis among PwMS in the US. This study describes the prevalence of cannabis use, routes of administration, perceived benefit of cannabis for MS, and characteristics associated with cannabis use and perception of benefit among a population of PwMS living in two states where cannabis is legal for both medical and recreational use.

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabinoids in the Immunomodulation of Prevalent Autoimmune Diseases

Cannabinoids such as ▵-9-THC and CBD can downregulate the immune response by modulating the endocannabinoid system. This modulation is relevant for the treatment of prevalent autoimmune diseases (ADs), such as multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These conditions require new therapeutic options with fewer side effects for the control of the autoimmune response. Objective: to conduct a literature review of preclinical scientific evidence that supports further clinical investigations for the use of cannabinoids (natural or synthetic) as potential immunomodulators of the immune response in ADs.

Cannabis, a Miracle Drug with Polyvalent Therapeutic Utility: Preclinical and Clinical-Based Evidence

Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous dioecious plant which was first cultivated by agricultural human societies in Asia. Over the period of time, various parts of the plant like leaf, flower, and seed were used for recreational as well as therapeutic purposes. The main chemical components of Cannabis sativa are termed as cannabinoids, among them the key psychoactive constituent is Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD) as active nonpsychotic constituent. Upon doing extensive literature review, it was found that cannabis has been widely studied for a number of disorders. Very recently, a pure CBD formulation, named Epidiolex, got a green flag from both United States Food and Drug Administration and Drug Enforcement Administration for 2 rare types of epilepsies. This laid a milestone in medical cannabis research. This review intends to give a basic and extensive assessment, from past till present, of the ethnological, plant, chemical, pharmacological, and legal aspects of C. sativa.

Immunomodulatory Potential of Cannabidiol in Multiple Sclerosis: a Systematic Review

Authors Alessia Furgiuele, Marco Cosentino, Marco Ferrari & Franca Marino Published in Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology January 2021 Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Efficacy of treatments for MS is associated with risk of adverse effects, and effective and well-tolerated drugs remain a major unmet…

Cannabis Therapeutics and the Future of Neurology

Author: Ethan B. Russo Published in: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience  October 2018 Abstract Introduction: Cannabis burst across the Western medicine horizon after its introduction by William O’Shaughnessy in 1838 (O’Shaughnessy, 1838–1840; Russo, 2017b), who described remarkable successes in treating epilepsy, rheumatic pains, and even universally fatal tetanus with the “new” drug. Cannabis, or “Indian hemp,” was…

Pharmacokinetics of Sativex® in Dogs: Towards a Potential Cannabinoid-Based Therapy for Canine Disorders

Authors: María Fernández-Trapero, Carmen Pérez-Díaz, Francisco Espejo-Porras, Eva de Lago, Javier Fernández-Ruiz Published in Biomolecules February 2020 Abstract The phytocannabinoid-based medicine Sativex® is currently marketed for the treatment of spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis patients and is being investigated for other central and peripheral pathological conditions. It may also serve in Veterinary Medicine for the…

Cannabidiol for Viral Diseases: Hype or Hope?

Authors: Alex Mabou Tagne, Barbara Pacchetti, Mikael Sodergren, Marco Cosentino, and Franca Marino Published in Mary Ann Liebert, Inc Publishers June 2020 Abstract Background: The possibility of cannabidiol (CBD) to be used as an antiviral or to treat viral diseases has received limited attention so far, despite the growing number of claims that CBD could be…

Efficacy of cannabidiol treatment in experimental MS is due to immunosuppressive activity of myeloid cells in CNS downregulating recruitment of CD4+ T cells, proinflammatory chemokines and gasdermin D expression

Authors: Nicholas Dopkins, Kiesha Wilson, Kathryn Miranda, Prakash S Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti Published in The Journal of Immunology May 2020   Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive ingredient from Cannabis that has garnered attention in the medical community due to its anti-inflammatory properties and therapeutic potential. CBD has in particular become a popular alternative…

The influence of THC:CBD oromucosal spray on driving ability in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.

Authors: Elisabeth G. Celius, Carlos Vila
Brain and Behavior, 6 April 2018

BACKGROUND: Driving ability is a key function for the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) to help maintain daily interactions. Both physical and cognitive disability, as well as treatments, may affect the ability to drive. Spasticity is a common symptom associate…

Oral administration of cannabis with lipids leads to high levels of cannabinoids in the intestinal lymphatic system and prominent immunomodulation.

Authors: Atheer Zgair, Jong Bong Lee, Jonathan C. M. Wong, Dhiaa A. Taha, Jehan Aram, et al
Scientific Reports, 6 November 2017

Cannabidiol (CBD) and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have well documented immunomodulatory effects in vitro, but not following oral administration in humans. Here we show that oral co-administration of cannabinoids with lipids can substantially increase their intestinal lympha…

Randomized controlled trial of Sativex to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis.

Authors: R. B. C. Kavia, D. De Ridder, C. S. Constantinescu, C. G. Stott, C. J. Fowler
Multiple Sclerosis Journal, November 2016

BACKGROUND: Bladder dysfunction is a common feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Sativex(®) (nabiximols) as an add-on therapy in alleviating bladder symptoms in patients with MS. METHODS: We un…

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes.

Authors: Ethan B. Russo
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1 July 2016

Medicine continues to struggle in its approaches to numerous common subjective pain syndromes that lack objective signs and remain treatment resistant. Foremost among these are migraine, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome, disorders that may overlap in their affected p…