Unveiling the Potential of Cannabinoids in Multiple Sclerosis and the Dawn of Nano-Cannabinoid Medicine

Multiple sclerosis is the predominant autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system in adolescents and adults. Specific treatments are categorized as disease-modifying, whereas others are symptomatic treatments to alleviate painful symptoms. Currently, no singular conventional therapy is universally effective for all patients across all stages of the illness. Nevertheless, cannabinoids exhibit significant promise in their capacity for neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, and immunosuppression. This review will examine the traditional treatment for multiple sclerosis, the increasing interest in using cannabis as a treatment method, its role in protecting the nervous system and regulating the immune system, commercially available therapeutic cannabinoids, and the emerging use of cannabis in nanomedicine. In conclusion, cannabinoids exhibit potential as a disease-modifying treatment rather than merely symptomatic relief. However, further research is necessary to unveil their role and establish the safety and advancements in nano-cannabinoid medicine, offering the potential for reduced toxicity and fewer adverse effects, thereby maximizing the benefits of cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids as therapeutics for nervous system disorders: preclinical models and clinical studies

Cannabinoids are lipophilic substances derived from Cannabis sativa that can exert a variety of effects in the human body. They have been studied in cellular and animal models as well as in human clinical trials for their therapeutic benefits in several human diseases. Some of these include central nervous system (CNS) diseases and dysfunctions such as forms of epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, pain and neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the endogenously produced cannabinoid lipids, endocannabinoids, are critical for normal CNS function, and if controlled or modified, may represent an additional therapeutic avenue for CNS diseases. This review discusses in vitro cellular, ex vivo tissue and in vivo animal model studies on cannabinoids and their utility as therapeutics in multiple CNS pathologies. In addition, the review provides an overview on the use of cannabinoids in human clinical trials for a variety of CNS diseases. Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids hold promise for use as disease modifiers and therapeutic agents for the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders.

Low Doses of β-Caryophyllene Reduced Clinical and Paraclinical Parameters of an Autoimmune Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis: Investigating the Role of CB2 Receptors in Inflammation by Lymphocytes and Microglial

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a prevalent inflammatory disease in which the immune system plays an essential role in the damage, inflammation, and demyelination of central nervous system neurons (CNS). The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) agonists possess anti-inflammatory effects against noxious stimuli and elevate the neuronal survival rate. We attempted to analyze the protective impact of low doses of β-Caryophyllene (BCP) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice as a chronic MS model. Immunization of female C57BL/6 mice was achieved through two subcutaneous injections into different areas of the hind flank with an emulsion that consisted of myelin Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35–55 (150 µg) and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) (400 µg) with an equal volume. Two intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of pertussis toxin (300 ng) were performed on the animals on day zero (immunizations day) and 48 h (2nd day) after injection of MOG + CFA. The defensive effect of low doses of BCP (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/d) was investigated in the presence and absence of a CB2 receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg, AM630) in the EAE model. We also examined the pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and the polarization of brain microglia and spleen lymphocytes in EAE animals. According to our findings, low doses of BCP offered protective impacts in the EAE mice treatment in a CB2 receptor-dependent way. In addition, according to results, BCP decreased the pathological and clinical defects in EAE mice via modulating adaptive (lymphocytes) and innate (microglia) immune systems from inflammatory phenotypes (M1/Th1/Th17) to anti-inflammatory (M2/Th2/Treg) phenotypes. Additionally, BCP elevated the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and reduced blood inflammatory cytokines. BCP almost targeted the systemic immune system more than the CNS immune system. Thus, a low dose of BCP can be suggested as a therapeutic effect on MS treatment with potent anti-inflammatory effects and possibly lower toxicity.

Multiple Sclerosis and Use of Medical Cannabis: A Retrospective Review of a Neurology Outpatient Population

Patients diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a wide range of symptoms requiring pharmacologic management, and many do not achieve adequate symptom control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of medical cannabis (MC) as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for patients with MS. A retrospective medical record review of 141 patients with MS receiving MC for symptom management was conducted. Data were collected for up to 4 follow-up appointments after initiation of MC. Outcomes included changes in MS symptoms, medication changes, adverse events, and changes in cognition and mobility.

A cross-sectional survey of cannabis use by people with MS in Oregon and Southwest Washington

Evidence supports that cannabinoids reduce self-reported spasticity and neuropathic pain in people with MS (PwMS), and legal access to cannabis for medical and recreational use continues to rise. However, there are limited data regarding patterns of cannabis use and perceived benefits of cannabis among PwMS in the US. This study describes the prevalence of cannabis use, routes of administration, perceived benefit of cannabis for MS, and characteristics associated with cannabis use and perception of benefit among a population of PwMS living in two states where cannabis is legal for both medical and recreational use.

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabinoids in the Immunomodulation of Prevalent Autoimmune Diseases

Cannabinoids such as ▵-9-THC and CBD can downregulate the immune response by modulating the endocannabinoid system. This modulation is relevant for the treatment of prevalent autoimmune diseases (ADs), such as multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These conditions require new therapeutic options with fewer side effects for the control of the autoimmune response. Objective: to conduct a literature review of preclinical scientific evidence that supports further clinical investigations for the use of cannabinoids (natural or synthetic) as potential immunomodulators of the immune response in ADs.

Cannabis, a Miracle Drug with Polyvalent Therapeutic Utility: Preclinical and Clinical-Based Evidence

Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous dioecious plant which was first cultivated by agricultural human societies in Asia. Over the period of time, various parts of the plant like leaf, flower, and seed were used for recreational as well as therapeutic purposes. The main chemical components of Cannabis sativa are termed as cannabinoids, among them the key psychoactive constituent is Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD) as active nonpsychotic constituent. Upon doing extensive literature review, it was found that cannabis has been widely studied for a number of disorders. Very recently, a pure CBD formulation, named Epidiolex, got a green flag from both United States Food and Drug Administration and Drug Enforcement Administration for 2 rare types of epilepsies. This laid a milestone in medical cannabis research. This review intends to give a basic and extensive assessment, from past till present, of the ethnological, plant, chemical, pharmacological, and legal aspects of C. sativa.

Immunomodulatory Potential of Cannabidiol in Multiple Sclerosis: a Systematic Review

Authors Alessia Furgiuele, Marco Cosentino, Marco Ferrari & Franca Marino Published in Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology January 2021 Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune disease of…

Cannabis Therapeutics and the Future of Neurology

Author: Ethan B. Russo Published in: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience  October 2018 Abstract Introduction: Cannabis burst across the Western medicine horizon after its introduction by William O’Shaughnessy in 1838 (O’Shaughnessy, 1838–1840;…

Pharmacokinetics of Sativex® in Dogs: Towards a Potential Cannabinoid-Based Therapy for Canine Disorders

Authors: María Fernández-Trapero, Carmen Pérez-Díaz, Francisco Espejo-Porras, Eva de Lago, Javier Fernández-Ruiz Published in Biomolecules February 2020 Abstract The phytocannabinoid-based medicine Sativex® is currently marketed for the treatment of spasticity and…

Cannabidiol for Viral Diseases: Hype or Hope?

Authors: Alex Mabou Tagne, Barbara Pacchetti, Mikael Sodergren, Marco Cosentino, and Franca Marino Published in Mary Ann Liebert, Inc Publishers June 2020 Abstract Background: The possibility of cannabidiol (CBD) to be…

Efficacy of cannabidiol treatment in experimental MS is due to immunosuppressive activity of myeloid cells in CNS downregulating recruitment of CD4+ T cells, proinflammatory chemokines and gasdermin D expression

Authors: Nicholas Dopkins, Kiesha Wilson, Kathryn Miranda, Prakash S Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti Published in The Journal of Immunology May 2020   Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive ingredient from…