Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main pharmacologically active phytocannabinoid. CBD exerts an analgesic effect in several pain models, does not have side effects and has low toxicity. The data about CBD mechanisms of action in pain and its therapeutic potential in this area are limited. Here, we tested CBD effects in animal models specific for migraine. We assayed CBD distribution in plasma and in cranial areas related to migraine pain in male Sprague Dawley rats treated chronically (5 days). Successively, we tested CBD activity on the behavioral and biochemical effects induced in the acute and the chronic migraine animal models by nitroglycerin (NTG) administration. In the acute migraine model, rats received CBD (15 mg or 30 mg/kg, i.p) 3 h after NTG (10 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle injection. In the chronic migraine model, rats were treated with CBD and NTG every other day over nine days with the following doses: CBD 30 mg/kg i.p., NTG 10 mg/kg i.p.
Medical marijuana treatment for migraine is becoming more common, although the legality and societal acceptance of marijuana for medical purposes in the United States have been challenged by the stigma attached to it as a recreational drug. These substances function to reduce nociception and decrease the frequency of migraine by having an impact on the endocannabinoid system. Our study reviewed the clinical response, dosing, and side effects of marijuana in migraine management. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, and nine studies were included in the systematic review. The studies demonstrated that medical marijuana has a significant clinical response by reducing the length and frequency of migraines. No severe adverse effects were noted. Due to its effectiveness and convenience, medical marijuana therapy may be helpful for patients suffering from migraines. However, additional clinical trials and observational studies with longer follow-ups are required to study the efficacy and safety of the drug.