Legalization of marijuana is increasingly steadily which supports more widespread use and a growing perception of less risk of harm, however study of its effects on newborns when used by pregnant women is still lacking. Current physicians and health care practitioners are not fully informed to advise best practice regarding marijuana use during pregnancy. Additionally, methods to measure marijuana usage and effects are still limited and require further development, therefore assessment of whether not pregnant women should use marijuana products is timely and important.
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic brain diseases. Almost one-thirdof patients have drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Cannabidiol is being considered as a potential novel drug for treating DRE. To investigate long-term efficacy and safety of cannabidiol in treatment of DRE and the differences in cannabidiol treatment among patients with different characteristics.
The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether regular marijuana use is related to history of kidney stones in the US population. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2018. Kidney stone and marijuana use data were collected from self-report questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression and multiple sensitivity analyses were applied to examine the relationship between marijuana usage and kidney stones.
Cannabis use is becoming more common globally, making it important for physicians to be aware of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). CHS presents in chronic cannabis users, typically under the age of 50, and entails a severe cyclic nausea and vomiting pattern with abdominal pain but normal bowel habits. Symptoms typically predominate in the morning, are relieved by hot baths or showers, and resolve with discontinuation of cannabis use. This report details a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department at a large Canadian hospital with severe nausea, vomiting and a history of regular use of marijuana cigarettes. In an attempt to alleviate her symptoms she reported taking frequent hot baths and using as many as five marijuana cigarettes per day. The patient’s clinical presentation, chronic daily use of marijuana and relief of symptoms with hot baths led to the diagnosis of CHS. The antiemetic properties of cannabis are widely known in the community, meaning patients may not associate marijuana use with their symptoms. Additionally, cyclic vomiting syndrome is present in many different conditions, making physician awareness of this syndrome crucial. Recognition and diagnosis of this condition can prevent unnecessary, costly diagnostic tests, and provide an opportunity to initiate counselling on cessation.
The use of cannabis with various forms of exercise (e.g., running) has received increased media attention in recent years, contradicting the popular stereotype that cannabis is associated with sedentary behavior. Although cross-sectional evidence suggests a positive association between cannabis use and exercise engagement, to date, the acute effects of cannabis on exercise remain unclear. The present within-subjects crossover study compared participants’ experiences of running after ad libitum use of legal market cannabis (cannabis run) to running without cannabis (non-cannabis run) in a real-world setting. Participants (n=49) were cannabis users between the ages of 21 and 49 years (mean=30.82, standard deviation [SD]=6.21). The majority of participants were male (61.5%) and non-Hispanic White (81.6%).
Scientific literature examining cannabis use in the context of health behaviors, such as exercise engagement, is extremely sparse and has yielded inconsistent findings. This issue is becoming increasingly relevant as cannabis legalization continues, a situation that has been associated with increased initiation of use among adults, and increased potency of available products in legalized states. Physical activity is among the most important health behaviors, but many Americans do not meet minimum exercise recommendations for healthy living. Common issues surrounding low exercise rates include inadequate enjoyment of and motivation to exercise, and poor recovery from exercise. It is unclear whether cannabis use shortly before and/or after exercise impacts these issues, and whether this co-use affects exercise performance. The present online survey study examines attitudes and behaviors regarding cannabis use with exercise among adult cannabis users living in states with full legal access (N = 605). Results indicated that the majority (81.7%) of participants endorsed using cannabis concurrently with exercise, and those who did tended to be younger and more likely to be males (p < 0.0005 for both). Even after controlling for these differences, co-users reported engaging in more minutes of aerobic and anaerobic exercise per week (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the majority of participants who endorsed using cannabis shortly before/after exercise reported that doing so enhances their enjoyment of and recovery from exercise, and approximately half reported that it increases their motivation to exercise. This study represents an important step in clarifying cannabis use with exercise among adult users in states with legal cannabis markets, and provides guidance for future research directions.
Limited data are available regarding marijuana smoking’s impact on development or progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in middle-aged or older adults with a variable history of tobacco cigarette smoking. We divided ever-tobacco smoking participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) into three groups based on self-reported marijuana use: current, former or never marijuana smokers (CMS, FMS or NMS, respectively). Longitudinal data were analyzed in participants with ≥2 visits over a period of ≥52 weeks.
Cannabis is the most used illicit drug in the world. Global trends of decriminalization and legali- zation of cannabis lead to various forms of cannabis use and bring great concerns over adverse events, partic- ularly in the cardiovascular (CV) system. To date, the association between cannabis and adverse CV events is still controversial. We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the adverse CV events from cannabis use.
Cannabidiol (CBD) has numerous pharmacological targets that initiate anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiepileptic properties. These neuroprotective benefits have generated interest in CBD’s therapeutic potential against the secondary injury cascade from traumatic brain injury (TBI). There are currently no effective broad treatment strategies for combating the damaging mechanisms that follow the primary injury and lead to lasting neurological consequences or death. However, CBD’s effects on different neurotransmitter systems, the blood brain barrier, oxidative stress mechanisms, and the inflammatory response provides mechanistic support for CBD’s clinical utility in TBI. This review describes the cascades of damage caused by TBI and CBD’s neuroprotective mechanisms to counter them. We also present challenges in the clinical treatment of TBI and discuss important future clinical research directions for integrating CBD in treatment protocols. The mechanistic evidence provided by pre-clinical research shows great potential for CBD as a much-needed improvement in the clinical treatment of TBI. Upcoming clinical trials sponsored by major professional sport leagues are the first attempts to test the efficacy of CBD in head injury treatment protocols and highlight the need for further clinical research.
An increasing number of countries are deciding to regulate the medicinal and/or recreational use of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). However, there is a lack of information on the impact of regular consumption of this substance on public health. In this study, for the first time, regular cannabis consumers in Spain were assessed using health indicators, comparing these data with the general population.
Medical marijuana treatment for migraine is becoming more common, although the legality and societal acceptance of marijuana for medical purposes in the United States have been challenged by the stigma attached to it as a recreational drug. These substances function to reduce nociception and decrease the frequency of migraine by having an impact on the endocannabinoid system. Our study reviewed the clinical response, dosing, and side effects of marijuana in migraine management. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, and nine studies were included in the systematic review. The studies demonstrated that medical marijuana has a significant clinical response by reducing the length and frequency of migraines. No severe adverse effects were noted. Due to its effectiveness and convenience, medical marijuana therapy may be helpful for patients suffering from migraines. However, additional clinical trials and observational studies with longer follow-ups are required to study the efficacy and safety of the drug.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived influence of cannabis on sexual functioning and satisfaction. This study used Kaplan’s and Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle (desire, excitement, orgasm, plateau, resolution) and included satisfaction to complete the sexual response cycle. Given increased attention in the research literature to the potential benefits of cannabis and the lack of research on the sexual benefits of cannabis use, the current study was completed.