Shower power: a case report of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome

Cannabis use is becoming more common globally, making it important for physicians to be aware of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). CHS presents in chronic cannabis users, typically under the age of 50, and entails a severe cyclic nausea and vomiting pattern with abdominal pain but normal bowel habits. Symptoms typically predominate in the morning, are relieved by hot baths or showers, and resolve with discontinuation of cannabis use. This report details a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department at a large Canadian hospital with severe nausea, vomiting and a history of regular use of marijuana cigarettes. In an attempt to alleviate her symptoms she reported taking frequent hot baths and using as many as five marijuana cigarettes per day. The patient’s clinical presentation, chronic daily use of marijuana and relief of symptoms with hot baths led to the diagnosis of CHS. The antiemetic properties of cannabis are widely known in the community, meaning patients may not associate marijuana use with their symptoms. Additionally, cyclic vomiting syndrome is present in many different conditions, making physician awareness of this syndrome crucial. Recognition and diagnosis of this condition can prevent unnecessary, costly diagnostic tests, and provide an opportunity to initiate counselling on cessation.

Running High: Cannabis Users’ Subjective Experience of Exercise During Legal Market Cannabis Use Versus No Use in a Naturalistic Setting

The use of cannabis with various forms of exercise (e.g., running) has received increased media attention in recent years, contradicting the popular stereotype that cannabis is associated with sedentary behavior. Although cross-sectional evidence suggests a positive association between cannabis use and exercise engagement, to date, the acute effects of cannabis on exercise remain unclear. The present within-subjects crossover study compared participants’ experiences of running after ad libitum use of legal market cannabis (cannabis run) to running without cannabis (non-cannabis run) in a real-world setting. Participants (n=49) were cannabis users between the ages of 21 and 49 years (mean=30.82, standard deviation [SD]=6.21). The majority of participants were male (61.5%) and non-Hispanic White (81.6%).

The New Runner’s High? Examining Relationships Between Cannabis Use and Exercise Behavior in States With Legalized Cannabis

Scientific literature examining cannabis use in the context of health behaviors, such as exercise engagement, is extremely sparse and has yielded inconsistent findings. This issue is becoming increasingly relevant as cannabis legalization continues, a situation that has been associated with increased initiation of use among adults, and increased potency of available products in legalized states. Physical activity is among the most important health behaviors, but many Americans do not meet minimum exercise recommendations for healthy living. Common issues surrounding low exercise rates include inadequate enjoyment of and motivation to exercise, and poor recovery from exercise. It is unclear whether cannabis use shortly before and/or after exercise impacts these issues, and whether this co-use affects exercise performance. The present online survey study examines attitudes and behaviors regarding cannabis use with exercise among adult cannabis users living in states with full legal access (N = 605). Results indicated that the majority (81.7%) of participants endorsed using cannabis concurrently with exercise, and those who did tended to be younger and more likely to be males (p < 0.0005 for both). Even after controlling for these differences, co-users reported engaging in more minutes of aerobic and anaerobic exercise per week (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the majority of participants who endorsed using cannabis shortly before/after exercise reported that doing so enhances their enjoyment of and recovery from exercise, and approximately half reported that it increases their motivation to exercise. This study represents an important step in clarifying cannabis use with exercise among adult users in states with legal cannabis markets, and provides guidance for future research directions.

Impact of Marijuana Smoking on COPD Progression in a Cohort of Middle-Aged and Older Persons

Limited data are available regarding marijuana smoking’s impact on development or progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in middle-aged or older adults with a variable history of tobacco cigarette smoking. We divided ever-tobacco smoking participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) into three groups based on self-reported marijuana use: current, former or never marijuana smokers (CMS, FMS or NMS, respectively). Longitudinal data were analyzed in participants with ≥2 visits over a period of ≥52 weeks.

Cannabis and adverse cardiovascular events: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Cannabis is the most used illicit drug in the world. Global trends of decriminalization and legali- zation of cannabis lead to various forms of cannabis use and bring great concerns over adverse events, partic- ularly in the cardiovascular (CV) system. To date, the association between cannabis and adverse CV events is still controversial. We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the adverse CV events from cannabis use.

Cannabidiol’s neuroprotective properties and potential treatment of traumatic brain injuries

Cannabidiol (CBD) has numerous pharmacological targets that initiate anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiepileptic properties. These neuroprotective benefits have generated interest in CBD’s therapeutic potential against the secondary injury cascade from traumatic brain injury (TBI). There are currently no effective broad treatment strategies for combating the damaging mechanisms that follow the primary injury and lead to lasting neurological consequences or death. However, CBD’s effects on different neurotransmitter systems, the blood brain barrier, oxidative stress mechanisms, and the inflammatory response provides mechanistic support for CBD’s clinical utility in TBI. This review describes the cascades of damage caused by TBI and CBD’s neuroprotective mechanisms to counter them. We also present challenges in the clinical treatment of TBI and discuss important future clinical research directions for integrating CBD in treatment protocols. The mechanistic evidence provided by pre-clinical research shows great potential for CBD as a much-needed improvement in the clinical treatment of TBI. Upcoming clinical trials sponsored by major professional sport leagues are the first attempts to test the efficacy of CBD in head injury treatment protocols and highlight the need for further clinical research.

Cannabis and Public Health: A Study Assessing Regular Cannabis Users Through Health Indicators

An increasing number of countries are deciding to regulate the medicinal and/or recreational use of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). However, there is a lack of information on the impact of regular consumption of this substance on public health. In this study, for the first time, regular cannabis consumers in Spain were assessed using health indicators, comparing these data with the general population.

Efficacy and Safety of Medical Marijuana in Migraine Headache: A Systematic Review

Medical marijuana treatment for migraine is becoming more common, although the legality and societal acceptance of marijuana for medical purposes in the United States have been challenged by the stigma attached to it as a recreational drug. These substances function to reduce nociception and decrease the frequency of migraine by having an impact on the endocannabinoid system. Our study reviewed the clinical response, dosing, and side effects of marijuana in migraine management. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, and nine studies were included in the systematic review. The studies demonstrated that medical marijuana has a significant clinical response by reducing the length and frequency of migraines. No severe adverse effects were noted. Due to its effectiveness and convenience, medical marijuana therapy may be helpful for patients suffering from migraines. However, additional clinical trials and observational studies with longer follow-ups are required to study the efficacy and safety of the drug.

The influence of cannabis on sexual functioning and satisfaction

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived influence of cannabis on sexual functioning and satisfaction. This study used Kaplan’s and Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle (desire, excitement, orgasm, plateau, resolution) and included satisfaction to complete the sexual response cycle. Given increased attention in the research literature to the potential benefits of cannabis and the lack of research on the sexual benefits of cannabis use, the current study was completed.

Impact of Prenatal Cannabis Use Disorder on Perinatal Outcomes

With legislative changes to cannabis legalization and increasing prevalence of use, cannabis is the most commonly used federally illicit drug in pregnancy. Our study aims to assess the perinatal outcomes associated with prenatal cannabis use disorder.

Marijuana and Myocardial Infarction in the UK Biobank Cohort

Atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, acute coronary syndromes, and cardiac arrest have been attributed to marijuana. But the National Academy of Science’s 2017 Report, The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids, found limited evidence that acute marijuana smoking is positively associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, and uncovered no evidence to support or refute associations between any chronic effects of marijuana use and increased risk of myocardial infarct (MI).

A survey of medical cannabis use during perimenopause and postmenopause

Expanding access to legal cannabis has dovetailed with increased interest in medical cannabis (MC) use; however, there is a paucity of research examining MC use to alleviate menopause-related symptoms. This survey study assessed patterns of MC use in perimenopausal and postmenopausal individuals.