Modulation of pulmonary immune function by inhaled cannabis products and consequences for lung disease

The lungs, in addition to participating in gas exchange, represent the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens and respiratory toxicants. Cells lining the airways and alveoli include epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, the latter being resident innate immune cells important in surfactant recycling, protection against bacterial invasion and modulation of lung immune homeostasis. Environmental exposure to toxicants found in cigarette smoke, air pollution and cannabis can alter the number and function of immune cells in the lungs. Cannabis (marijuana) is a plant-derived product that is typically inhaled in the form of smoke from a joint. However, alternative delivery methods such as vaping, which heats the plant without combustion, are becoming more common. Cannabis use has increased in recent years, coinciding with more countries legalizing cannabis for both recreational and medicinal purposes. Cannabis may have numerous health benefits owing to the presence of cannabinoids that dampen immune function and therefore tame inflammation that is associated with chronic diseases such as arthritis.

Novel Insights into the Immunomodulatory Effects of Caryophyllane Sesquiterpenes: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies

Immunomodulation is a key factor in the homeostasis of organisms, both for physiological and inflammatory conditions. In this context, great attention has been devoted to immunomodulant agents, which can boost or modulate the immune system, thus favoring disease relief. The present systematic review is focused on the immunomodulatory properties of plant-based caryophyllane sesquiterpenes, which are unique natural compounds widely studied due to their multiple and pleiotropic bioactivities. Despite lacking clinical evidence, the selected studies highlighted the ability of these substances, especially β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, to modulate the immune system of both in vitro and in vivo models of disease, such as neurodegenerative and inflammatory- based diseases, cancer, and allergies; moreover, some mechanistic hypotheses have been made too. The present overview suggests a further interest in immunomodulation by caryophyllane sesquiterpenes as a possible novel strategy for immune-based diseases or as an adjuvant treatment…

Signaling Through the Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor Regulates the Severity of Acute and Chronic Graft versus Host Disease

Authors: Cheng Yin Yuan, Vivian Zhou, Garrett Sauber, Todd M Stollenwerk, Richard Komorowski, Alicia López, Rosa Maria Tolon, Julian Romero, Cecilia J Hillard, William R Drobyski Published in Blood  October…

Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Prevents Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer through Myeloid Cell De-activation Upstream of IL-22 Production

Authors: William Becker, Haider Rasheed Alrafa,Kiesha Wilson, Kathryn Miranda, Courtney Culpepper, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Guoshuai Cai, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash S. Nagarkatti Published in Iscience August 2020 Abstract Summary Intestinal disequilibrium leads…

Editorial: Lung macrophages high on cannabinoids: jamming PAMs and taming TAMs?

Authors: Jürg Gertsch
Journal of Leukocyte Biology, April 2016

Discussion of cannabinoid receptors and the ECS in macrophage activation.