Low Doses of β-Caryophyllene Reduced Clinical and Paraclinical Parameters of an Autoimmune Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis: Investigating the Role of CB2 Receptors in Inflammation by Lymphocytes and Microglial

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a prevalent inflammatory disease in which the immune system plays an essential role in the damage, inflammation, and demyelination of central nervous system neurons (CNS). The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) agonists possess anti-inflammatory effects against noxious stimuli and elevate the neuronal survival rate. We attempted to analyze the protective impact of low doses of β-Caryophyllene (BCP) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice as a chronic MS model. Immunization of female C57BL/6 mice was achieved through two subcutaneous injections into different areas of the hind flank with an emulsion that consisted of myelin Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35–55 (150 µg) and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) (400 µg) with an equal volume. Two intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of pertussis toxin (300 ng) were performed on the animals on day zero (immunizations day) and 48 h (2nd day) after injection of MOG + CFA. The defensive effect of low doses of BCP (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/d) was investigated in the presence and absence of a CB2 receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg, AM630) in the EAE model. We also examined the pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and the polarization of brain microglia and spleen lymphocytes in EAE animals. According to our findings, low doses of BCP offered protective impacts in the EAE mice treatment in a CB2 receptor-dependent way. In addition, according to results, BCP decreased the pathological and clinical defects in EAE mice via modulating adaptive (lymphocytes) and innate (microglia) immune systems from inflammatory phenotypes (M1/Th1/Th17) to anti-inflammatory (M2/Th2/Treg) phenotypes. Additionally, BCP elevated the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and reduced blood inflammatory cytokines. BCP almost targeted the systemic immune system more than the CNS immune system. Thus, a low dose of BCP can be suggested as a therapeutic effect on MS treatment with potent anti-inflammatory effects and possibly lower toxicity.

Therapeutic Potential of Phytocannabinoid Cannabigerol for Multiple Sclerosis: Modulation of Microglial Activation In Vitro and In Vivo

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a widespread chronic neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease. Microglia play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS via the release of cytokines and reactive oxygen species, e.g., nitric oxide. Research involving the role of phytocannabinoids in neuroinflammation is currently receiving much attention. Cannabigerol is a main phytocannabinoid, which has attracted significant pharmacological interest due to its non-psychotropic nature. In this research, we studied the effects of cannabigerol on microglial inflammation in vitro, followed by an in vivo study. Cannabigerol attenuated the microglial production of nitric oxide in BV2 microglia and primary glial cells; concomitant treatment of the cells with cannabigerol and telmisartan (a neuroprotective angiotensin receptor blocker) decreased nitric oxide production additively. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was also reduced by cannabigerol.