Healthcare provider and medical cannabis patient communication regarding referral and medication substitution: the Canadian context

Patients use medical cannabis for a wide array of illnesses and symptoms, and many substitute canna- bis for pharmaceuticals. This substitution often occurs without physician oversight, raising patient safety concerns. We aimed to characterize substitution and doctor-patient communication patterns in Canada, where there is a mature market and national regulatory system for medical cannabis.
Methods: We conducted an anonymous, cross-se