Cannabinoids: Emerging sleep modulator

Sleep is an essential biological phase of our daily life cycle and is necessary for maintaining homeostasis, alertness, metabolism, cognition, and other key functions across the animal kingdom. Dysfunctional sleep leads to deleterious effects on health, mood, and cognition, including memory deficits and an increased risk of diabetes, stroke, and neurological disorders. Sleep is regulated by several brain neuronal circuits, neuromodulators, and neurotransmitters, where cannabinoids have been increasingly found to play a part in its modulation. Cannabinoids, a group of lipid metabolites, are regulatory molecules that bind mainly to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Much evidence supports the role of cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of sleep, where their alteration exhibits sleep-promoting effects, including an increase in non-rapid-eye movement sleep and a reduction in sleep latency. However, the pharmacological alteration of CB1 receptors is associated with adverse psychotropic effects, which are not exhibited in CB2 receptor alteration. Hence, selective alteration of CB2 receptors is also of clinical importance, where it could potentially be used in treating sleep disorders. Thus, it is crucial to understand the neurobiological basis of cannabinoids in sleep physiology. In this review article, the alteration of the endocannabinoid system by various cannabinoids and their respective effects on the sleep-wake cycle are discussed based on recent findings. The mechanisms of the cannabinoid receptors on sleep and wakefulness are also explored for their clinical implications and potential therapeutic use on sleep disorders.

The Endocannabinoid System and Physical Exercise

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in various processes, including brain plas- ticity, learning and memory, neuronal development, nociception, inflammation, appetite regulation, digestion, metabolism, energy balance, motility, and regulation of stress and emotions. Physical exercise (PE) is considered a valuable non-pharmacological therapy that is an immediately available and cost-effective method with a lot of health benefits, one of them being the activation of the endoge- nous cannabinoids. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are generated as a response to high-intensity activities and can act as short-term circuit breakers, generating antinociceptive responses for a short and variable period of time. A runner’s high is an ephemeral feeling some sport practitioners experience during endurance activities, such as running. The release of eCBs during sustained physical exercise appears to be involved in triggering this phenomenon. The last decades have been characterized by an increased interest in this emotional state induced by exercise, as it is believed to alleviate pain, induce mild sedation, increase euphoric levels, and have anxiolytic effects. This review provides information about the current state of knowledge about endocannabinoids and physical effort and also an overview of the studies published in the specialized literature about this subject.

CBD Promotes Oral Ulcer Healing via Inhibiting CMPK2-Mediated Inflammasome

Oral ulcer is a common oral inflammatory lesion accompanied by severe pain but with few effective treatments. Cannabidiol (CBD) is recently emerging for its therapeutic potential in a range of diseases, including inflammatory conditions and cancers. Here we show that CBD oral spray on acid- or trauma-induced oral ulcers on mice tongue inhibits inflammation, relieves pain, and accelerates lesion closure

Potential and Limits of Cannabinoids in Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two-weeks of nightly sublingual cannabinoid extract (ZTL-101) in treating chronic insomnia (symptoms ≥three months).

Cannabidiol upregulates melanogenesis through CB1 dependent pathway by activating p38 MAPK and p42/44 MAPK

Authors: Young Sun Hwang, Youn-Jung Kim, Mi Ok Kim, Mingyeong Kang, Sae Woong Oh, Youn Hwa Nho, See-Hyoung Park, Jongsung Lee Published in Science Direct August 2017 Abstract Melanogenesis plays…

The synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212‐2 decreases the intraocular pressure in human glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies

Author: Anna Porcella Chiara Maxia Gian Luigi Gessa Luca Pani Published in European Journal of Neuroscience March 1980 Abstract The search for new ocular hypotensive agents represents a frontier of current…

Finding of endocannabinoids in human eye tissues: Implications for glaucoma

Author: June Chen, Isabel Matias, Tim Dinh, Ta Lu, Sonia Venezia, Amelia Nieves, David F. Woodward, Vincenzo Di Marzo Published in Science Direct May 2005 Abstract Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are involved…

Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid alleviates collagen‐induced arthritis: Role of PPARγ and CB1 receptors

Author: Belén Palomares Martín Garrido‐Rodriguez Claudia Gonzalo‐Consuegra María Gómez‐Cañas Suwipa Saen‐oon Robert Soliva Juan A. Collado Javier Fernández‐Ruiz Gaetano Morello Marco A. Calzado Giovanni Appendino Eduardo Muñoz Published in British Pharmacological Society …

Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid

Authors: Francesca Borrelli, Ester Pagano, Barbara Romano, Stefania Panzera, Francesco Maiello, Diana Coppola, Luciano De Petrocellis, Lorena Buono, Pierangelo Orlando, Angelo A. Izzo Published in Oxford Academic September 2014 Abstract Cannabigerol…

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Review of Potential Mechanisms

Authors: Marieka V. DeVuono, Linda A. Parker Published in Mary Ann Liebert, Inc Publishers June 2020 Abstract Introduction Cannabinoids have long been known for their ability to treat nausea and vomiting….