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Phytocannabinoids: Origins and Biosynthesis

hytocannabinoids are bioactive terpenoids that were thought to be exclusive to Cannabis sativa, but have now also been discovered in Rhododendron species, some legumes, the liverwort genus Radula, and some fungi.

Many cannabinoids display promising non-hallucinogenic bioactivities that are determined by the variable nature of the side chain and prenyl group defined by the enzymes involved in their synthesis.

Medical cannabis and cognitive performance in middle to old adults treated for chronic pain

Authors: Sharon R Sznitman, Simon Vulfsons, David Meiri, Galit Weinstein Published in Drug and Alcohol Review September 2020 Abstract Introduction and aims: Cannabis exposure is becoming more common in older age but little is known about how it is associated with brain health in this population. This study assesses the relationship between long-term medical cannabis…

Endocannabinoids, exercise, pain, and a path to health with aging.

Authors: Bruce A.Watkins
Molecular Aspects of Medicine, December 2018

Physical activity is an important lifestyle factor for growth, development, and sustained health throughout life. In recent years, the benefits of physical activity have drawn more attention to its physiological effects on the body, including well-being. The endocannabinoid sy…

Cannabis use during pregnancy: Pharmacokinetics and effects on child development.

Authors: Kimberly S.Grant, Rebekah Petroff, Nina Isoherranen, Nephi Stella, Thomas M. Burbacher
Pharmacology & Therapeutics, February 2018

The broad-based legalization of cannabis use has created a strong need to understand its impact on human health and behavior. The risks that may be associated with cannabis use, particularly for sensitive subgroups such as pregnant women, are difficult to define because of a p…

The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system.

Authors: Michael A. P. Bloomfield, Abhishekh H. Ashok, Nora D. Volkow, Oliver D. Howes
Nature, 17 November 2016

The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, are a pressing concern for global mental health. Patterns of cannabis use are changing drastically owing to legalization, the availability of synthetic analogues (commonly termed spice)…

A collaboration investigating endocannabinoid signalling in brain and bone.

Authors: Andreas Zimmer
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 1 May 2016

Investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the psychoactive effects of cannabis preparations have led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. Interest in the central nervous system effects was initially the main focus of the research, but it s…

Endocannabinoid Signaling in Autism.

Authors: Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Antonio Persico, Natalia Battista, Mauro Maccarrone
Neurotherapeutics, October 2015

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral condition with onset during early childhood and a lifelong course in the vast majority of cases. To date, no behavioral, genetic, brain imaging, or electrophysiological test can specifically validate a clinical diagnosis o…

Elevated brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in post-traumatic stress disorder: a positron emission tomography study.

Authors: A Neumeister, M D Normandin, R H Pietrzak, D Piomelli, M Q Zheng, A Gujarro-Anton, et al
Molecular Psychiatry, September 2013

Endocannabinoids and their attending cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor have been implicated in animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, their specific role has not been studied in people with PTSD. Herein, we present an in vivo imaging study using posit…

The endocannabinoid system in normal and pathological brain ageing.

Authors: Andras Bilkei-Gorzo
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 5 December 2012

The role of endocannabinoids as inhibitory retrograde transmitters is now widely known and intensively studied. However, endocannabinoids also influence neuronal activity by exerting neuroprotective effects and regulating glial responses. This review centres around this less-s…

Effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological FMRI study.

Authors: Matthijs G. Bossong, Gerry Jager, Hendrika H. van Hell, Lineke Zuurman, et al
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, March 2012

Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have s…

Potential protective effects of cannabidiol on neuroanatomical alterations in cannabis users and psychosis: a critical review.

Authors: Derik Hermann , Miriam Schneider
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2012

Cannabis use and the development of schizophrenic psychoses share a variety of similarities. Both start during late adolescence; go along with neuropsychological deficits, reduced activity, motivation deficits, and hallucinations suggesting impairment of similar brain structur…

The dual neuroprotective-neurotoxic profile of cannabinoid drugs.

Authors: Yosef Sarne, Fadi Asaf, Miriam Fishbein, Mikhal Gafni, Ora Keren
British Journal of Pharmacology, August 2011

Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that cannabinoid drugs have neuroprotective properties and suggested that the endocannabinoid system may be involved in endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms. On the other hand, neurotoxic effects of cannabinoids in vitro and i…