Do tobacco and cannabis use and co-use predict lung function: A longitudinal study

Use of tobacco and cannabis is common and has been reported to predict lung function. Less is known about co-use of tobacco and cannabis and their impact on changes in lung function to early adulthood.The study examines whether cigarette smoking or cannabis use and co-use are each associated with lung function in a population sample of young adults.Data are from a prospective cohort study of cigarette smoking, cannabis use and co-use at 21 and 30 years of age and lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) measured at 30 years. Lung function results are transformed using Global Lung Function Formulae. Subjects are the children of pregnant women who were recruited into the cohort study over the period 1981–3. Respondents were administered a spirometry assessment at 21 and 30 years of age. These respondents completed a smoking and cannabis use questionnaire at 21- and 30-year follow-ups.

Efficacy and Safety of Medical Marijuana in Migraine Headache: A Systematic Review

Medical marijuana treatment for migraine is becoming more common, although the legality and societal acceptance of marijuana for medical purposes in the United States have been challenged by the stigma attached to it as a recreational drug. These substances function to reduce nociception and decrease the frequency of migraine by having an impact on the endocannabinoid system. Our study reviewed the clinical response, dosing, and side effects of marijuana in migraine management. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, and nine studies were included in the systematic review. The studies demonstrated that medical marijuana has a significant clinical response by reducing the length and frequency of migraines. No severe adverse effects were noted. Due to its effectiveness and convenience, medical marijuana therapy may be helpful for patients suffering from migraines. However, additional clinical trials and observational studies with longer follow-ups are required to study the efficacy and safety of the drug.

The synergistic anticancer effect of CBD and DOX in osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor that can present with pain in the bones, joints, and local masses. The incidence is highest in adolescents, and the most common sites are the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal humerus metaphyseal. Doxorubicin is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of osteosarcoma, but it has many side effects. Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid cannabinol (CBD) that has been shown to be effective against osteosarcoma; however, the molecular targets and mechanisms of CBD action in osteosarcoma remain unclear.

Topical Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Digital Ulcers in Patients with Scleroderma: Comparative Analysis and Literature Review

To explore the effect of topical cannabidiol (CBD) in treating digital ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). In total, 45 patients with SSc who had digital ulcers were consecutively enrolled between January 2019 and December 2019. Of the participants, 25 were treated with CBD during surgical debridement and 20 were treated with standard local therapy. A numeric rating scale for pain and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index were administered at the baseline and at the end of treatment.

The influence of cannabis on sexual functioning and satisfaction

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived influence of cannabis on sexual functioning and satisfaction. This study used Kaplan’s and Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle (desire, excitement, orgasm, plateau, resolution) and included satisfaction to complete the sexual response cycle. Given increased attention in the research literature to the potential benefits of cannabis and the lack of research on the sexual benefits of cannabis use, the current study was completed.

Phytochemical Constituents and Derivatives of Cannabis sativa; Bridging the Gap in Melanoma Treatment

Melanoma is deadly, physically impairing, and has ongoing treatment deficiencies. Current treatment regimens include surgery, targeted kinase inhibitors, immunotherapy, and combined approaches. Each of these treatments face pitfalls, with diminutive five-year survival in patients with advanced metastatic invasion of lymph and secondary organ tissues. Polyphenolic compounds, including cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids; both natural and synthetic, have emerging evidence of nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmacological potential, including specific anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and palliative utility. Cannabis sativa is a wellspring of medicinal compounds whose direct and adjunctive application may offer considerable relief for melanoma suffers worldwide. This review aims to address the diverse applications of C. sativa’s biocompounds in the scope of melanoma and suggest it as a strong candidate for ongoing pharmacological evaluation.

When The Pharmacopoeia Fails: Cannabis for Pain

Addressing the most compelling cannabis concern, its abuse by young people, the best meta-analysis of the data [2] reveals that even the heaviest non-medical cannabis usage in teen- agers and young adults reduces cognitive sequelae to non- statistical salience after abstinence of 72 hours with no evident permanent sequelae. No formal study has shown cognitive impairment in medical cannabis patients, and some have even documented improvement.

The Anti-Tumorigenic Role of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 in Colon Cancer: A Study in Mice and Humans

The endocannabinoid system, particularly cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 in mice and CNR2 in humans), has controversial pathophysiological implications in colon cancer. Here, we investigate the role of CB2 in potentiating the immune response in colon cancer in mice and determine the influence of CNR2 variants in humans. Comparing wild-type (WT) mice to CB2 knockout (CB2−/−) mice, we performed a spontaneous cancer study in aging mice and subsequently used the AOM/DSS model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer and a model for hereditary colon cancer (ApcMin/+). Additionally, we analyzed genomic data in a large human population to determine the relationship between CNR2 variants and colon cancer incidence. Aging CB2−/− mice exhibited a higher incidence of spontaneous precancerous lesions in the colon compared to WT controls.

Therapeutic Potential of Phytocannabinoid Cannabigerol for Multiple Sclerosis: Modulation of Microglial Activation In Vitro and In Vivo

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a widespread chronic neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease. Microglia play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS via the release of cytokines and reactive oxygen species, e.g., nitric oxide. Research involving the role of phytocannabinoids in neuroinflammation is currently receiving much attention. Cannabigerol is a main phytocannabinoid, which has attracted significant pharmacological interest due to its non-psychotropic nature. In this research, we studied the effects of cannabigerol on microglial inflammation in vitro, followed by an in vivo study. Cannabigerol attenuated the microglial production of nitric oxide in BV2 microglia and primary glial cells; concomitant treatment of the cells with cannabigerol and telmisartan (a neuroprotective angiotensin receptor blocker) decreased nitric oxide production additively. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was also reduced by cannabigerol.

Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol Exert Antimicrobial Activity without Compromising Skin Microbiota

Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are two pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids of Cannabis sativa L. Their antimicrobial activity needs further elucidation, particularly for CBG, as reports on this cannabinoid are scarce. We investigated CBD and CBG’s antimicrobial potential, including their ability to inhibit the formation and cause the removal of biofilms. Our results demonstrate that both molecules present activity against planktonic bacteria and biofilms, with both cannabinoids removing mature biofilms at concentrations below the determined minimum inhibitory concentrations. We report for the first time minimum inhibitory and lethal concentrations for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (ranging from 400 to 3180 µM), as well as the ability of cannabinoids to inhibit Staphylococci adhesion to keratinocytes, with CBG demonstrating higher activity than CBD.

The Effectiveness and Safety of Pharmaceutical-Grade Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Mastocytosis-Associated Pain: A Pilot Study

Mastocytosis patients often experience a number of symptoms, including mastocytosis-associated pain that is difficult to manage due to resistance to usual antalgic treatments and/or the patient’s poor tolerance. Mastocytosis patients display significantly higher levels of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) activity, leading to hyperactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. As cannabidiol (CBD) is known to inhibit IDO1′s enzymatic activity, we hypothesized that pharmaceutical-grade CBD is an effective treatment for mastocytosis-associated pain. Patients with non-advanced mastocytosis and refractory pain were eligible for inclusion in this observational pilot study.

A Retrospective Cohort Study That Examined the Impact of Cannabis Consumption on Long-Term Kidney Outcomes

Cannabis consumption for recreational and medical use is increasing worldwide. However, the long-term effects on kidney health and disease are largely unknown. Post hoc analysis of cannabis use as a risk factor for kidney disease was performed using data from the Assessment, Serial Evaluation, and Subsequent Sequelae of Acute Kidney Injury (ASSESS-AKI) study that enrolled hospitalized adults with and without acute kidney injury from four U.S. centers during 2009–2015. Associations between self-reported cannabis consumption and the categorical and continuous outcomes were determined using multivariable Cox regression and linear mixed models, respectively.