The synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212‐2 decreases the intraocular pressure in human glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies

Author: Anna Porcella Chiara Maxia Gian Luigi Gessa Luca Pani Published in European Journal of Neuroscience March 1980 Abstract The search for new ocular hypotensive agents represents a frontier of current eye research because blindness due to optic neuropathy occurs insidiously in 10% of all patients affected by glaucoma. Cannabinoids have been proposed to lower intraocular…

Topical Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabinol and Aqueous Dynamics in Glaucoma

Author: JOHN C. MERRITT M.D. DWIGHT D. PERRY M.D. DAVID N. RUSSELL M.D. BRENDA F. JONES M.D. Published in American College of Clinical Pharmacology  September 1981 Abstract Systemic Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), administered either by smoking marihuana or as synthetic THC in soft gelatin capsules, lowers ocular tension in various glaucomas, but at the expense of significant decreases…

Effect of Marihuana on Intraocular and Blood Pressure in Glaucoma

Author: John C.Merritt MD, William J.Crawford PhD, Paul C.Alexander MD, Alfred L.Anduze MD, Solomon S.Gelbart MD Published in Science Direct March 1980 Abstract Marihuana inhalation was accompanied by increased heart rate and decreased intraocular and blood pressure in 18 subjects with heterogenous glaucomas. The hypotensive effects appeared in 60 to 90 minutes as the decrease in…

Changes in endocannabinoid and palmitoylethanolamide levels in eye tissues of patients with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration

Author: I. Matias, J.W. Wang, A. Schiano Moriello, A. Nieves, D.F. Woodward,V. Di Marzo Published in Science Direct December 2006 Abstract Cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoids (anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine—AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)), as well as the AEA congener, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), are involved in ocular physiology. We measured endocannabinoid and PEA levels by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis…

Cannabis and glaucoma: A literature review

Author: Kathleen MacMillan MacMillan, Amanda Keddy, James Furlon Published in Dalhousie Medical Journal  2019 Abstract Introduction: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells secondary to optic neuropathy; increased intraocular pressure (IOP) may or may not be present. Many treatment options focus on decreasing IOP measurements to attempt to prevent progression…

Diurnal and 24-h Intraocular Pressures in Glaucoma: Monitoring Strategies and Impact on Prognosis and Treatment

Author: Anastasios G. Konstas, Malik Y. Kahook, Makoto Araie, Andreas Katsanos, Luciano Quaranta, Luca Rossetti, Gábor Holló, Efstathios T. Detorakis, Francesco Oddone, Dimitrios G. Mikropoulos & Gordon N. Dutton Published in Springer Link  October 2008 Abstract The present review casts a critical eye on intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring and its value in current and future glaucoma…

Experiences with Administration of Marihuana to Glaucoma Patients

Author: Robert S. HeplerRobert J. Petrus Published in Springer Link  1976 Abstract In 1971 Hepler and Frank reported reduction in intraocular pressure occurring after healthy young adults smoked marihuana. These initial observations led to additional studies designed to compare the pressure-reducing effects of placebo, smoked marihuana, and injected THC. Consistent, statistically-significant pressure reduction was observed in…

Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administration of cannabinol or cannabigerol

Author: Brenda K.Colasanti, Charles R. Craig, R. David Allara Published in Science Direct September 1984 Abstract Cannabinol or cannabigerol was administered to cats topically in doses of 250, 500 and 1000 μg as a single drop or chronically via osmotic minipumps (20 μg hr−1) over a period of 9 days. While cannabinol had a modest…

Finding of endocannabinoids in human eye tissues: Implications for glaucoma

Author: June Chen, Isabel Matias, Tim Dinh, Ta Lu, Sonia Venezia, Amelia Nieves, David F. Woodward, Vincenzo Di Marzo Published in Science Direct May 2005 Abstract Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are involved in ocular physiology and may regulate intraocular pressure (IOP). However, endocannabinoid levels in human ocular tissues of cornea, iris, ciliary body, retina, and choroid from…

The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma

Author: Elizabeth A. Cairns,1 William H. Baldridge,2,3 and Melanie E. M. Kelly Published in Hindawi January 2016 Abstract Glaucoma is an irreversible blinding eye disease which produces progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only modifiable risk factor, and lowering IOP results in reduced risk of progression of the disorder. The…

Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Authors: Penny F. Whiting, Robert F. Wolff, Sohan Deshpande, Marcello Di Nisio, Steven Duffy, et al
JAMA, 23 June 2015

IMPORTANCE: Cannabis and cannabinoid drugs are widely used to treat disease or alleviate symptoms, but their efficacy for specific indications is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the benefits and adverse events (AEs) of cannabinoids. DATA SOURCES: Twenty…

Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program

Authors: Ethan Russo, Mary Lynn Mathre, Al Byrne, Robert Velin, Paul J. Bach, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, et al
Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, 2002

The Missoula Chronic Clinical Cannabis Use Study was proposed to investigate the therapeutic bepnefits and adverse effects of prolonged use of “medical marijuana” in a cohort of seriously ill patients. Use of cannabis was approved through the Compassionate Inves-tigational New…