Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a minor psychoactive phytocannabinoid, similar to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Recent statements released by the FDA and CDC reported around 660 delta-8-THC exposure cases. With the rise in commercially available products, it is crucial to understand the pharmacological and toxicological properties of this compound. The objective of this review is to summarize current literature regarding the pharmacokinetic, and pharmacologic properties of delta-8- THC.
Archive for month: September, 2023
Cannabinoids have gained attention for their potential therapeutic effects in various fields, including pain control, augmenting fusion, neuroprotection, wound healing, inflammation, mental health, and clinical outcomes/complications. We explore the history and mechanism of action of cannabinoids, as well as their role in each of these areas. By examining existing research, the potential benefits and limitations of incorporating cannabinoids into spine non-operative and operative protocols are highlighted. Ultimately, this review aims to contribute to the understanding of cannabinoids as a viable option for optimizing patient outcomes in the context of spine surgery.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonintoxicating phytocannabinoid used in clinical treatments and sold widely in consumer products. CBD products may be designed for sublingual or oral delivery, but it is unclear whether either is advantageous for CBD absorption. This study compared CBD pharmacokinetics after providing CBD oil as sublingual drops and within orally ingested gelatin capsules, at a dose relevant to consumer products.
Cannabinoid products have been studied in the treatment of various dermatologic conditions. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE for articles published before 1 February 2023 that described the use of cannabinoids in the management of hair, scalp, and skin conditions, identifying 18 original articles that encompassed 1090 patients who used various forms of cannabinoid products. Where specified, topical cannabidiol (CBD) was the most commonly utilized treatment (64.3%, 173/269), followed by oral dronabinol (14.4%, 39/269), oral lenabasum (14.1%, 38/269), and oral hempseed oil (5.9%, 16/269). Using the GRADE approach, we found moderate-quality evidence supporting the efficacy of cannabinoid products in managing atopic dermatitis, dermatomyositis, psoriasis, and systemic sclerosis and moderate-quality evidence supporting a lack of efficacy in treating trichotillomania. There was low to very low quality evidence supporting the efficacy of cannabinoid products in managing alopecia areata, epidermolysis bullosa, hyperhidrosis, seborrheic dermatitis, and pruritus. Our findings suggest that cannabinoids may have efficacy in managing symptoms of certain inflammatory dermatologic conditions. However, the evidence is still limited, and there is no standardized dosage or route of administration for these products. Large randomized controlled trials and further studies with standardized treatment regimens are necessary to better understand the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is critically involved in the pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Over the past decade, the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of the ECS have been studied, and inhibiting the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG) is emerging as a promising strategy to counteract brain damage in MS. In this study, a systemic and preventive in vivo treatment with MAGLi 432, the reversible inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGLi), was performed in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. Clinical, biochemical, electrophysiological and immunofluorescence analyses were carried out to evaluate the impact of the drug on motor disability, neuroinflammation and synaptic damage. MAGLi 432 induced a less severe EAE disease, accompanied by an increase of 2-AG and a reduction of acid arachidonic (AA) and prostaglandins (PGs) brain levels.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is becoming widely available despite little being known about its potential toxicity or long-term effects. The present investigation involved two distinct studies. The first study explored acute and long-term effects of CBG on toxicity, lifespan, and aging in adult Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Animals were treated with CBG (0.075 lM–3.75 mM) to determine acute toxicity, mortality, and motility. Acute heat- induced stress survival (thermotolerance; 37°C for 4 h) following CBG administration (0.075–3.75 mM) was measured. Long-term toxicity of lifelong CBG administration (7.5, 75, or 375 lM CBG) was determined through changes in motility and lifespan duration. In the second study, healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats received 0, 35, 70, or 140 mg/kg-bw/day CBG (n = 5 per sex per group) daily for 14 days via oral gavage. Signs of gross toxicity and changes in behavior, body weight, food consumption, and serum chemistry were monitored. Liver, kidney, and adrenal gland weights were recorded, and histopathology of select tissues was examined.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is an understudied cannabinoid that appears to have effects that vary as a function of dose. No human study has evaluated the safety and nature of effects in a wide range of THCV doses. This was a two-phase, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled trial of the D8 isomer of oral THCV in healthy adults. Phase 1 utilized an unblinded, single-ascending dose design (n = 3). Phase 2 used a double-blind, random- ized, within-participant crossover design (n = 18). Participants received single acute doses of placebo and 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg of THCV. Safety measures and subjective and cognitive effects were assessed predose and up to 8 h postdose.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of dementia represent a large driver of health care costs, caregiver burden, and institutionalization of people with dementia. Management options are limited, and antipsychotics are often used, although they carry a significant side effect profile. One novel option is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); however, in the US, to obtain THC for patients with dementia, caregivers have to go to a commercial dispensary. We evaluated the effectiveness of dispensary-obtained THC for patients with dementia and NPS. Two independent reviewers reviewed charts of patients with diagnosed dementia (N = 50) seen in geriatric psychiatry between 2017 and 2021 for whom dispensary-obtained THC was recommended. The primary outcome was effectiveness in treating NPS; secondary outcomes were the proportion of caregivers who obtained and administered THC (uptake), post-THC antipsychotic use, and adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation.
Medical cannabis may provide a treatment option for chronic neuropathic pain. However, empirical disease-specific data are scarce. This is a retrospective observational study including 99 patients with chronic neuropathic pain. These patients received medical cannabis by means of inhaling dried flowers with tetrahydrocannabinol content of <12–22% at a maximal daily dose of 0.15–1 g. Up to six follow-ups were carried out at intervals of 4–6 weeks. Pain severity, sleep disturbance, general improvement, side effects, and therapy tolerance at the follow-up consultations were assessed in interviews and compared with the baseline data using non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The primary injury results in neuronal damage and initiates secondary injuries like neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and blood-brain barrier disruption. This results in long-term cognitive, behavioral and motor deficits. Existing therapeutic options for TBI focus on symptomatic management rather than directly addressing the cellular processes that drive secondary damage. Novel neuroprotective therapies are urgently needed. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a promising therapeutic target for TBI. The ECS comprises the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG, cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, and metabolic enzymes like fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). It is involved in synaptic function, neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress and neuronal loss. Modulation the ECS through receptor agonists/antagonists, inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolism, or combination approaches represents a novel neuroprotective strategy in TBI.
Highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) has a broad spectrum of action and could be useful for the treatment of drug resistant epilepsy regardless of etiology or syndrome. Multicenter retrospective study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of CBD for the treatment of drug resistant epilepsy of different etiologies in patients >2 years of age.
Hippocampal hyperperfusion has been observed in people at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR), is associated with adverse longitudinal outcomes and represents a potential treatment target for novel pharmacotherapies. Whether cannabidiol (CBD) has ameliorative effects on hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) in CHR patients remains unknown. Using a double-blind, parallel-group design, 33 CHR patients were randomised to a single oral 600mg dose of CBD or placebo; 19 healthy controls did not receive any drug. Hippocampal rCBF was measured using Arterial Spin Labelling. We examined differences relating to CHR status (controls vs placebo), effects of CBD in CHR (placebo vs CBD) and linear between-group relationships, such that placebo>CBD>controls or controls>CBD>placebo, using a combination of hypothesis-driven and exploratory wholebrain analyses.