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Novel Insights into the Immunomodulatory Effects of Caryophyllane Sesquiterpenes: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies

Immunomodulation is a key factor in the homeostasis of organisms, both for physiological and inflammatory conditions. In this context, great attention has been devoted to immunomodulant agents, which can boost or modulate the immune system, thus favoring disease relief. The present systematic review is focused on the immunomodulatory properties of plant-based caryophyllane sesquiterpenes, which are unique natural compounds widely studied due to their multiple and pleiotropic bioactivities. Despite lacking clinical evidence, the selected studies highlighted the ability of these substances, especially β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, to modulate the immune system of both in vitro and in vivo models of disease, such as neurodegenerative and inflammatory- based diseases, cancer, and allergies; moreover, some mechanistic hypotheses have been made too. The present overview suggests a further interest in immunomodulation by caryophyllane sesquiterpenes as a possible novel strategy for immune-based diseases or as an adjuvant treatment…

A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a conserved physiological system emerged as a novel pharmacological target for its significant role and potential therapeutic benefits ranging from neurological diseases to cancer. Among both, CB1 and CB2R types, CB2R have received attention for its pharmacological effects as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic that can be achieved without causing psychotropic adverse effects through CB1R.