Cannabis use in the United States and its impact on gastrointestinal health

Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system might contribute to various GI disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and cyclic vomiting syndrome, and endocannabinoids have been found to regulate visceral sensation, nausea, vomiting, and the gut microbiome. Cannabis has been shown to have antiemetic properties, and the US Food and Drug Administration has approved cannabis‐based medications for treating chemotherapy‐induced nausea and vomiting. Yet, chronic heavy cannabis use has been linked to recurrent episodes of severe nausea and intractable vomiting (cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome). Given the consid- erable heterogeneity in the scientific literature, it is unclear if cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is truly a distinct entity or a subtype of cyclic vomiting that is unmasked by heavy cannabis use and the associated dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system. The changes in cannabis legalization, availabil- ity, and public risk perceptions have outpaced research in this area and there is a need for robust, prospective, large‐scale studies to understand the effects of cannabis use on GI health.

Patient Experiences with the Use of Medicinal Cannabis in the Netherlands: A Cohort-Event Monitoring Study

In 2003, patients in the Netherlands gained legal access to medicinal cannabis due to legislative measures by the Dutch government. Studies on patient experiences related to medicinal cannabis usage are necessary to complement the data obtained from randomized controlled trials. To gain insight into patient’s experiences with the use of medicinal cannabis in the Netherlands. We conducted an observational longitudinal cohort event monitoring study. Data were collected through online questionnaires. From March 2021 to March 2022, patients were included. After registration, par- ticipants received four online questionnaires over a 12-month period. Descriptive statistics were used to present the included variables using MS Excel 2022.

Safety and risks of CBD oils purchased online: unveiling uncertain quality and vague health claims

The unmet need for highly effective, naturally derived products with minimal side effects results in the over-popularity of ever-newer medicinal plants. In the middle of 2010, products containing cannabidiol (CBD), one of the special metabolites of Cannabis sativa, started to gain popularity. For consumers and healthcare providers alike, the legal context surrounding the marketing of CBD products is not entirely clear, and the safety of using some products is in doubt. Companies in the online medicinal product market profit from the confusion around CBD oils.

Assessing Cannabidiol as a Therapeutic Agent for Preventing and Alleviating Alzheimer’s Disease Neurodegeneration

To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of CBD in AD and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms, we aimed to contribute valuable insights for incorporating AD prevention recommendations into future CBD nutritional guidelines. Aβ1–42 was employed for in vivo or in vitro model establishment, CBD treatment was utilized to assess the therapeutic efficacy of CBD, and RNA-seq analysis was conducted to elucidate the underlying therapeutic mechanism. CBD mitigates Aβ-induced cognitive deficits by modulating microglial activity, promoting neurotrophic factor release, and regulating inflammatory genes.

Cannabinoids in Treating Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting, Cancer-Associated Pain, and Tumor Growth

Cannabinoids have been found to affect tumors of the brain, prostate, colon and rectum, breast, uterus, cervix, thyroid, skin, pancreas, and lymph. However, the full potential of cannabinoids is yet to be understood. This review discusses current knowledge on the promising applications of cannabinoids in treating three different side effects of cancer—chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, cancer-associated pain, and tumor development. The findings suggest that cannabinoids can be used to address some side effects of cancer and to limit the growth of tumors, though a lack of supporting clinical trials presents a challenge for use on actual patients. An additional challenge will be examining whether any of the over one hundred naturally occurring cannabinoids or dozens of synthetic compounds also exhibit useful clinical properties.

A preliminary study evaluating self-reported effects of cannabis and cannabinoids on neuropathic pain and pain medication use in people with spinal cord injury

Approximately 60% of individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) experience neuropathic pain, which often persists despite the use of various pharmacological treatments. Increasingly, the potential analgesic effects of cannabis and cannabinoid products have been studied; however, little research has been conducted among those with SCI-related neuropathic pain. Therefore, the primary objective of the study was to investigate the perceived effects of cannabis and cannabinoid use on neuropathic pain among those who were currently or had previously used these approaches. Additionally, the study aimed to determine if common pain medications are being substituted by cannabis and cannabinoids.

Cannabis vaporisation: Understanding products, devices and risks

Vaporisation is a common method of cannabis administration. Inconsistent terminology and jargon regarding vaporisation has led to confusion. The increasing public interest and access to cannabis, combined with possible safety concerns associated with certain cannabis vaping products, warrants improved consumer and public and health care professional knowledge.

The Evolving Landscape of Therapeutics for Epilepsy in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment approaches for epilepsy and other neurological features of TSC. While narrative reviews on TSC exist, this review uniquely synthesizes key advancements across the areas of TSC neuropathology, conventional and emerging pharmacological therapies, and targeted treatments. The review is narrative in nature, without any date restrictions, and summarizes the most relevant literature on the neurological aspects and management of TSC. By consolidating the current understanding of TSC neurobiology and evidence-based treatment strategies, this review provides an invaluable reference that highlights progress made while also emphasizing areas requiring further research to optimize care and outcomes for TSC patients.

Medical Marijuana for Pain Management in Hospice Care as a Complementary Approach to Scheduled Opioids: A Single Arm Study

Opioid therapy is critical for pain relief for most hospice patients but may be limited by adverse side effects. Combining medical cannabis with opioids may help mitigate adverse effects while maintaining effective pain relief. This single-arm study investigated the impact of combined medical cannabis/opioid therapy on pain relief, opioid dose, appetite, respiratory function, well-being, nausea, and adverse events in hospice inpatients.

Analysis of elemental impurities in cannabis following vaporization

The use of vaporizers to inhale cannabis is a technique that has risen in popularity among the American public. There is a general perception that vaporizers are “safer” when compared to more traditional cannabis smoking via combustion (i.e., cigarettes). The inherent use of heated air in vaporizers might reduce the respiratory toxicants or protein toxins by heating cannabis to a temperature where active compounds form in vapor phase. Yet this temperature is below the point of combustion where smoke and associated toxicants are produced. The elemental impurities are a general concern in all botanical products including cannabis and cannabis-derived products (CCDPs). This study aimed to investigate the potential transfer of those metallic elements from cannabis material to cannabis vapor through the vaporization process.

The Basic Science of Cannabinoids

The cannabis plant has been used for centuries to manage the symptoms of various ailments including pain. Hundreds of chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from the plant and elicit a variety of physiological responses by binding to specific receptors and interacting with numerous other proteins. In addition, the body makes its own cannabinoid-like compounds that are integrally involved in modulating normal and pathophysiological processes. As the legal cannabis landscape continues to evolve within the United States and throughout the world, it is important to understand the rich science behind the effects of the plant and the implications for providers and patients. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the basic science of the cannabinoids by describing the discovery and function of the endocannabinoid system, pharmacology of cannabinoids, and areas for future research and therapeutic development as they relate to perioperative and chronic pain medicine.

Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA) inhibits the TRPM7 ion channel through its kinase domain

In this study, we comprehensively investigated the most common major and minor cannabinoids to determine their potential efficacy on TRPM7 channel function. Here, we found that approximately half of the cannabinoids tested suppressed TRPM7 currents to some degree, with CBGA having the strongest inhibitory effect on TRPM7. We determined that the CBGA-mediated inhibition of TRPM7 requires a functional kinase domain , is sensitized by both intracellular Mg⋅ATP and free Mg2+, and reduced by increases in intracellular Ca2+. Finally, we demonstrate that CBGA inhibits native TRPM7 in B lymphocytes cell line.