Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Brain Disorders: Therapeutic Potential and Routes of Administration

The use of cannabidiol (CBD) for treating brain disorders has gained increasing interest. While the mechanism of action of CBD in these conditions is still under investigation, CBD has been shown to affect numerous different drug targets in the brain that are involved in brain disorders. Here we review the preclinical and clinical evidence on the potential therapeutic use of CBD in treating various brain disorders. Moreover, we also examine various drug delivery approaches that have been applied to CBD. Due to the slow absorption and low bioavailability with the current oral CBD therapy, more efficient routes of administration to bypass hepatic metabolism, particularly pulmonary delivery, should be considered. Comparison of pharmacokinetic studies of different delivery routes highlight the advantages of intranasal and inhalation drug delivery over other routes of administration (oral, injection, sublingual, buccal, and transdermal) for treating brain disorders. These two routes of delivery, being non-invasive and able to achieve fast absorption and increase bioavailability, are attracting increasing interest for CBD applications, with more research and development expected in the near future.

Cannabinoids as a Potential Alternative to Opioids in the Management of Various Pain Subtypes: Benefits, Limitations, and Risks

Pain is a global phenomenon encompassing many subtypes that include neuropathic, musculoskeletal, acute postoperative, cancer, and geriatric pain. Traditionally, opioids have been a mainstay pharmacological agent for managing many types of pain. However, opioids have been a subject of controversy with increased addiction, fatality rates, and cost burden on the US healthcare system. Cannabinoids have emerged as a potentially favorable alternative or adjunctive treatment for various types of acute and chronic pain. This narrative review seeks to describe the efficacy, risks, and benefits of cannabinoids as an adjunct or even potential replacement for opioids in the treatment of various subtypes of pain.

Cannabidiol as a potential novel treatment for endometriosis by its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and anti-angiogenic effects in an experimental rat model

Can cannabidiol (CBD) be used in the treatment of endometriosis by its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-angiogenic effects? Endometrial implants were surgically induced in 36 female Wistar-Albino rats. After confirmation of endometriotic foci, the rats were randomized into four groups. In leuprolide acetate (LA) group, rats were given a single 1mg/kg subcutaneous LA injection. Other groups were 5 mg/kg CBD (CBD5), saline solution (SS), and 20 mg/kg CBD (CBD20) and daily intra-peritoneal injections were applied for seven days. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed, and total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) measurements in blood and peritoneal fluid samples, and immunohistochemical staining for TNF-α, IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of endometriotic tissues were evaluated.

Endocannabinoids are potential inhibitors of glioblastoma multiforme proliferation

Globally, it is evident that glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive malignant cancer with a high mortality rate and no effective treatment options. Glioblastoma is classified as the stage-four progression of a glioma tumor, and its diagnosis results in a shortened life expectancy. Treatment options for GBM include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, surgical intervention, and conventional pharmacotherapy; however, at best, they extend the patient’s life by a maximum of 5 years. GBMs are considered incurable due to their high recurrence rate, despite various aggressive therapeutic approaches which can have many serious adverse effects. Ceramides, classified as endocannabinoids, offer a promising novel therapeutic approach for GBM. Endocannabinoids may enhance the apoptosis of GBM cells but have no effect on normal healthy neural cells.

Do tobacco and cannabis use and co-use predict lung function: A longitudinal study

Use of tobacco and cannabis is common and has been reported to predict lung function. Less is known about co-use of tobacco and cannabis and their impact on changes in lung function to early adulthood.The study examines whether cigarette smoking or cannabis use and co-use are each associated with lung function in a population sample of young adults.Data are from a prospective cohort study of cigarette smoking, cannabis use and co-use at 21 and 30 years of age and lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) measured at 30 years. Lung function results are transformed using Global Lung Function Formulae. Subjects are the children of pregnant women who were recruited into the cohort study over the period 1981–3. Respondents were administered a spirometry assessment at 21 and 30 years of age. These respondents completed a smoking and cannabis use questionnaire at 21- and 30-year follow-ups.

Efficacy and Safety of Medical Marijuana in Migraine Headache: A Systematic Review

Medical marijuana treatment for migraine is becoming more common, although the legality and societal acceptance of marijuana for medical purposes in the United States have been challenged by the stigma attached to it as a recreational drug. These substances function to reduce nociception and decrease the frequency of migraine by having an impact on the endocannabinoid system. Our study reviewed the clinical response, dosing, and side effects of marijuana in migraine management. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, and nine studies were included in the systematic review. The studies demonstrated that medical marijuana has a significant clinical response by reducing the length and frequency of migraines. No severe adverse effects were noted. Due to its effectiveness and convenience, medical marijuana therapy may be helpful for patients suffering from migraines. However, additional clinical trials and observational studies with longer follow-ups are required to study the efficacy and safety of the drug.

The synergistic anticancer effect of CBD and DOX in osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor that can present with pain in the bones, joints, and local masses. The incidence is highest in adolescents, and the most common sites are the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal humerus metaphyseal. Doxorubicin is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of osteosarcoma, but it has many side effects. Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid cannabinol (CBD) that has been shown to be effective against osteosarcoma; however, the molecular targets and mechanisms of CBD action in osteosarcoma remain unclear.