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Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex.

Authors: Evan J. Hess, Kirsten A. Moody, Alexandra L. Geffrey, Sarah F. Pollack, et al
Epilepsia, October 2016

OBJECTIVE: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder with highly variable expression. The most common neurologic manifestation of TSC is epilepsy, which affects approximately 85% of patients, 63% of whom develop treatment-resistant epilepsy. He…

Δ9-THC Intoxication by Cannabidiol-Enriched Cannabis Extract in Two Children with Refractory Epilepsy: Full Remission after Switching to Purified Cannabidiol.

Authors: José A. S. Crippa, Ana C. S. Crippa, Jaime E. C. Hallak, Rocio Martín-Santos, Antonio W. Zuardi
Frontiers in Pharmacology, 30 September 2016

Animal studies and preliminary clinical trials have shown that cannabidiol (CBD)-enriched extracts may have beneficial effects for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. However, these compounds are not yet registered as medicines by regulatory agencies. We describe the c…

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes.

Authors: Ethan B. Russo
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1 July 2016

Medicine continues to struggle in its approaches to numerous common subjective pain syndromes that lack objective signs and remain treatment resistant. Foremost among these are migraine, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome, disorders that may overlap in their affected p…

Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial.

Authors: Orrin Devinsky, Eric Marsh, Daniel Friedman, Elizabeth Thiele, Linda Laux, et al
The Lancet Neurology, March 2016

BACKGROUND: Almost a third of patients with epilepsy have a treatment-resistant form, which is associated with severe morbidity and increased mortality. Cannabis-based treatments for epilepsy have generated much interest, but scientific data are scarce. We aimed to establish w…

Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders.

Authors: Clementino Ibeas Bih, Tong Chen, Alistair V. W. Nunn, Michaël Bazelot, et al
Neurotherapeutics, October 2015

Cannabis has a long history of anecdotal medicinal use and limited licensed medicinal use. Until recently, alleged clinical effects from anecdotal reports and the use of licensed cannabinoid medicines are most likely mediated by tetrahydrocannabinol by virtue of: 1) this canna…

Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Movement Disorders.

Authors: Briony Catlow, Juan Sanchez-Ramos
Current Treatment Options in Neurology, September 2015

Use of cannabinoids as medications has a long history. Unfortunately, the prohibition of cannabis and its classification in 1970 as a schedule 1 drug has been a major obstacle in studying these agents in a systematic, controlled manner. The number of class 1 studies (randomize…

Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy.

Authors: Alexandra L. Geffrey, Sarah F. Pollack, Patricia L. Bruno, Elizabeth A. Thiele
Epilepsia, August 2015

OBJECTIVE: Under an expanded access investigational new drug (IND) trial, cannabidiol (CBD) is being studied as a possible adjuvant treatment of refractory epilepsy in children. Of the 25 subjects in the trial, 13 were being treated with clobazam (CLB). Because CLB and CBD are…

Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems: A Clinical Review.

Authors: Kevin P. Hill
JAMA, 23 June 2015

IMPORTANCE: As of March 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia had medical marijuana laws in place. Physicians should know both the scientific rationale and the practical implications for medical marijuana laws. OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, indications, and law…

Turning Over a New Leaf: Cannabinoid and Endocannabinoid Modulation of Immune Function.

Authors: Guy A. Cabral, Thomas J. Rogers, Aron H. Lichtman
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, June 2015

Cannabis is a complex substance that harbors terpenoid-like compounds referred to as phytocannabinoids. The major psychoactive phytocannabinoid found in cannabis ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produces the majority of its pharmacological effects through two cannabinoid recep…

Use of cannabis in severe childhood epilepsy and child protection considerations.

Authors: Megan Yap, Laura Easterbrook, Jan Connors, Laura Koopmans
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, May 2015

The use of medical cannabis in chronic illness is increasingly investigated, yet little is known about its use in paediatric populations. As child protection clinicians are often asked to provide advice around whether parents’ actions to give medical cannabis to their chronica…

Pure cannabidiol in the treatment of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: a case report.

Authors: Dimah Saade, Charuta Joshi
Pediatric Neurology, May 2015

BACKGROUND: Malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy is a devastating pharmacoresistent epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology characterized by onset in the first 6 months of life, continuous migrating focal seizures with corresponding multifocal electroencephalog…

Phytocannabinoids and epilepsy.

Authors: R. G. dos Santos, J. E. C. Hallak, J. P. Leite, A. W. Zuardi, J. A. S. Crippa
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, April 2015

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs often produce serious adverse effects, and many patients do not respond to them properly. Phytocannabinoids produce anticonvulsant effects in preclinical and preliminary human studies, and appear to produce fewer adverse effects…