Dysbiosis, which is an imbalance of gut microbial composition and function, can be caused by several external as well as internal factors, contributing to the onset of human and animal disorders, not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, the mechanisms leading to disease development involve a crucial interaction between the gut microbiota, their metabolic products, and the host. The expanded endocannabinoid system, also known as the “endocannabinoidome”, includes endocannabinoids (e.g., anandamide) and endocannabinoid-like mediators (e.g., palmitoylethanolamide), their receptors and metabolic enzymes. Dysregulation of this newly recognized endogenous system is also involved in several diseases. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a link between the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome exists. Here, we review some of the latest discoveries related to the functional link between these two complex systems and the disorders emerging from the malfunctioning of such a mutual interaction: for example, idiopathic inflammation, chronic enteropathies, metabolic disease and certain neuroinflammatory disorders. It is expected that in the near future new nutritional tools will emerge based on the expanding knowledge in this cutting-edge field.
Archive for year: 2022
Chronic pain is a common diagnosis that patients may face, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality and affecting the overall quality of life. In addition to established multidisciplinary pain management, medical cannabis may offer an approach to improving pain outcomes and functionality. This case involves a 72-year-old female patient, with chronic neck, lower back, and diffuse arthritic pain due to comorbid osteoarthritis (OA), scleroderma, and scoliosis. Medical cannabis therapy was certified based on the goals of improving pain control and simultaneously reducing the patient’s chronic opioid medication dose. Using potential opioid alternatives, such as medical cannabis, may prove beneficial to clinicians looking to improve pain management and reduce opioid therapy in patients.
Cannabidiol (CBD) expanded access program (EAP), initiated in 2014, provided add-on CBD to patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE) at 35 US epilepsy centers. Prior publications reported results through December 2016; herein, we present efficacy and safety results through January 2019.
Medical marijuana treatment for migraine is becoming more common, although the legality and societal acceptance of marijuana for medical purposes in the United States have been challenged by the stigma attached to it as a recreational drug. These substances function to reduce nociception and decrease the frequency of migraine by having an impact on the endocannabinoid system. Our study reviewed the clinical response, dosing, and side effects of marijuana in migraine management. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, and nine studies were included in the systematic review. The studies demonstrated that medical marijuana has a significant clinical response by reducing the length and frequency of migraines. No severe adverse effects were noted. Due to its effectiveness and convenience, medical marijuana therapy may be helpful for patients suffering from migraines. However, additional clinical trials and observational studies with longer follow-ups are required to study the efficacy and safety of the drug.
With legislative changes to cannabis legalization and increasing prevalence of use, cannabis is the most commonly used federally illicit drug in pregnancy. Our study aims to assess the perinatal outcomes associated with prenatal cannabis use disorder.
Cannabis sativa has chemically active compounds called cannabinoids, where Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are the major ones responsible for the various pharmacological effects. The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous system considered a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator. It is made up of type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors. CBD, in turn, has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, and regulates the effects arising from THC as a CB1 partial agonist, which are tachycardia, anxiety, and sedation. It also acts as a CB2 inverse agonist, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, its anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, antiemetic, anxiolytic, anticancer, and antioxidant effects seem to be linked to other discovered receptors such as GRP55, 5TH1a, TRPV I, TRPV II and the regulation of the intracellular concentration of Ca2+. Regarding oxidative stress, O2- can act as an oxidizing agent, being reduced to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or as a reducing agent, donating its extra electron to NO to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-). The ONOO- formed is capable of oxidizing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, causing several cell damages. In this sense, CBD can prevent cardiac oxidative damage in many conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, or even through the cardiotoxic effects induced by chemotherapy, which makes it a potential target for future clinical use to minimize the deleterious effects of many pathophysiologies.
Cannabidiol is showing promising results for the treatment of COVID-19, due to its capa- bility of acting on the unleashed cytokine storm, on the proteins necessary for both virus entry and replication and on the neurological consequences of patients who have been infected by the virus. Here, we summarize the latest knowledge regarding the advantages of using cannabinoids in the treatment of COVID-19.
This study aimed to explore the incidence of adverse events (AEs) reported by patients when initiating medicinal cannabis treatment for chronic pain, and the association of cannabis constituents, dose and concomitant medicines with AE incidence.
Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal white matter (WM) microstructure in recreational cannabis consumers; however, the long-term impact of medical cannabis (MC) use on WM coherence is unknown. Accordingly, this study assessed the longitudinal impact of MC treatment on WM coherence. Given results from preclinical studies, we hypothesized that MC treatment would be associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) and reduced mean diffusivity (MD).
Cannabis vaping involves the vaporization of a cannabis vaping liquid or solid via a vaping accessory such as a vape pen constructed of various metals or other parts. An increasing number of reports advocate for expansion of the testing and regulation of metal contaminants in cannabis vape liquids beyond the metals typically tested such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead to reflect the possibility of consumers’ exposure to other metal contaminants. Metal contaminants may originate not only from the cannabis itself but also from the vape devices in which the cannabis vape liquid is packaged. However, metal analyses of cannabis vape liquids sampled from cannabis vaping devices are challenged by poor precision and reproducibility. Herein, we present data on the metal content of 12 metals in 20 legal and 21 illegal cannabis vape liquids.
Patients diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a wide range of symptoms requiring pharmacologic management, and many do not achieve adequate symptom control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of medical cannabis (MC) as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for patients with MS. A retrospective medical record review of 141 patients with MS receiving MC for symptom management was conducted. Data were collected for up to 4 follow-up appointments after initiation of MC. Outcomes included changes in MS symptoms, medication changes, adverse events, and changes in cognition and mobility.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with dysregulated endocannabinoid signaling and may therefore respond to cannabidiol therapy. CONNECT-FX was a double-blind, randomized phase 3 trial assessing efficacy and safety of ZYN002, transdermal cannabidiol gel, for the treatment of behavioral symptoms in children and adolescents with FXS.